Geniposide, the component of the Chinese herbal formula Tongluojiunao, protects amyloid-β (Aβ)1-42-mediated death of hippocampal neurons via the non-classical estrogen signaling pathway
Jiao Li1, Feng Wang1, Haimin Ding2, Chunyan Jin2, Jinyan Chen2, Yanan Zhao1, Xiaojing Li2, Wenju Chen1, Ping Sun1, Yan Tan1, Qi Zhang1, Xu Wang1, Angran Fan1, Qian Hua1
1 School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
2 School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing
School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029
Source of Support: Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 81072901, the New Teacher Fund for Doctor Station, Ministry of Education, No. 20120013110013, grants from the Nautical Traditional Chinese Medicine Discipline, No. 522/0100604054, and grants from the Nautical Traditional Chinese Medicine Collaborative Innovation Center, No. 522/0100604299., Conflict of Interest: None
Tongluojiunao (TLJN) is an herbal medicine consisting of two main components, geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1. TLJN has been shown to protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, primary cultured hippocampal neurons treated with Aβ1-42 (10 µmol/L) significantly increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase, which was markedly reduced by TLJN (2 µL/mL), specifically by the component geniposide (26 µmol/L), but not ginsenoside Rg1 (2.5 µmol/L). The estrogen receptor inhibitor, ICI182780 (1 µmol/L), did not block TLJN- or geniposide-mediated decrease of lactate dehydrogenase under Aβ1-42-exposed conditions. However, the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase or mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitor, LY294002 (50 µmol/L) or U0126 (10 µmol/L), respectively blocked the decrease of lactate dehydrogenase mediated by TLJN or geniposide. Therefore, these results suggest that the non-classical estrogen pathway (i.e., phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase or mitogen-activated protein kinase) is involved in the neuroprotective effect of TLJN, specifically its component, geniposide, against Aβ1-42-mediated cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.