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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
November 2020
Volume 15 | Issue 11
Page Nos. 1973-2168

Online since Monday, May 11, 2020

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REVIEWS  

The role of the TrkB-T1 receptor in the neurotrophin-4/5 antagonism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on corticostriatal synaptic transmission Highly accessed article p. 1973
Elizabeth Hernandez-Echeagaray
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282224  PMID:32394943
This manuscript reviews the function and fundamental characteristics of the neurotrophins and their receptors to introduce the reader to the differential effects exhibited by the neurotrophins; brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 4/5 when acted together after sequential presentation. The neurotrophin 4/5 exhibits an inhibitory action on the modulatory effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in corticostriatal synapses when they are administered sequentially (brain-derived neurotrophic factor to neurotrophin 4/5). This inhibitory effect has not been previously documented and is relevant for these neurotrophins as both of them stimulate the TrkB receptor. The additive effect of these neurotrophins is also discussed and occurs when neurotrophin 4/5 exposure is followed by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a mouse model of striatal degeneration. Occlusive and additive effects of both neurotrophins are accompanied by changes in the expression of the TrkB receptor isoforms, specifically TrkB-T1 and TrkB-FL, as well as differences in phosphorylation levels of the TrkB receptor. The results of the experiments described raise several questions to inquire about the role that TrkB-T1 receptor plays in striatal physiology, as well as the functional relevance of the interaction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin 4/5 in the brain and more specifically at the striatal circuits in normal as well as pathological conditions.
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Could non-invasive brain-stimulation prevent neuronal degeneration upon ion channel re-distribution and ion accumulation after demyelination? Highly accessed article p. 1977
Friederike Pfeiffer, Alia Benali
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282234  PMID:32394944
Fast and efficient transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system is mediated through myelinated nerve fibers. In neuronal diseases such as multiple sclerosis, the conduction properties of axons are disturbed by the removal of the myelin sheath, leaving nerve cells at a higher risk of degenerating. In some cases, the protective myelin sheath of axons can be rebuilt by remyelination through oligodendroglial cells. In any case, however, changes in the ion channel organization occur and may help to restore impulse conduction after demyelination. On the other hand, changes in ion channel distribution may increase the energy demand of axons, thereby increasing the probability of axonal degeneration. Many attempts have been made or discussed in recent years to increase remyelination of affected axons in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. These approaches range from pharmacological treatments that reduce inflammatory processes or block ion channels to the modulation of neuronal activity through electrical cortical stimulation. However, these treatments either affect the entire organism (pharmacological) or exert a very local effect (electrodes). Current results show that neuronal activity is a strong regulator of oligodendroglial development. To bridge the gap between global and very local treatments, non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation could be considered. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is externally applied to brain areas and experiments with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation show that the neuronal activity can be modulated depending on the stimulation parameters in both humans and animals. In this review, we discuss the possibilities of influencing ion channel distribution and increasing neuronal activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation as well as the effect of this modulation on oligodendroglial cells and their capacity to remyelinate previously demyelinated axons. Although the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation clearly need further investigations, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be a promising approach for non-invasive neuronal modulation aiming at enhancing remyelination and thus reducing neurodegeneration.
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The role of exercise in brain DNA damage Highly accessed article p. 1981
Thais Ceresér Vilela, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, Zsolt Radak, Ricardo Aurino de Pinho
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282237  PMID:32394945
Cells are constantly subjected to cytotoxic and genotoxic insults resulting in the accumulation of unrepaired damaged DNA, which leads to neuronal death. In this way, DNA damage has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, cancer, and aging. Lifestyle factors, such as physical exercise, are neuroprotective and increase brain function by improving cognition, learning, and memory, in addition to regulating the cellular redox milieu. Several mechanisms are associated with the effects of exercise in the brain, such as reduced production of oxidants, up-regulation of antioxidant capacity, and a consequent decrease in nuclear DNA damage. Furthermore, physical exercise is a potential strategy for further DNA damage repair. However, the neuroplasticity molecules that respond to different aspects of physical exercise remain unknown. In this review, we discuss the influence of exercise on DNA damage and adjacent mechanisms in the brain. We discuss the results of several studies that focus on the effects of physical exercise on brain DNA damage.
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Combined effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and physical exercise on cortical plasticity p. 1986
Ya-Wen Yang, Wen-Xiu Pan, Qing Xie
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282239  PMID:32394946
Physical exercise can minimize dysfunction and optimize functional motor recovery after stroke by modulating cortical plasticity. However, the limitation of physical exercise is that large amounts of time and effort are necessary to significantly improve motor function, and even then, substantial exercise may not be sufficient to normalize the observed improvements. Thus, interventions that could be used to strengthen physical exercise-induced neuroplasticity may be valuable in treating hemiplegia after stroke. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation seems to be a viable strategy for enhancing such plasticity. As a non-invasive cortical stimulation technique, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is able to induce long-term plastic changes in the motor system. Recently, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was found to optimize the plastic changes caused by motor training, thereby enhancing the long-term effects of physical exercise in stroke patients. Therefore, it is believed that the combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and physical exercise may represent a superior method for restoring motor function after stroke.
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Should mast cells be considered therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis? p. 1995
Karen Henriette Pinke, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento, Vanessa Soares Lara, Alexandrina Sartori
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282238  PMID:32394947
Mast cells are immune cells of the myeloid lineage that are found throughout the body, including the central nervous system. They perform many functions associated with innate and specific immunity, angiogenesis, and vascular homeostasis. Moreover, they have been implicated in a series of pathologies (e.g., hypersensitivity reactions, tumors, and inflammatory disorders). In this review, we propose that this cell could be a relevant therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis, which is a central nervous system degenerative disease. To support this proposition, we describe the general biological properties of mast cells, their contribution to innate and specific immunity, and the participation of mast cells in the various stages of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development. The final part of this review is dedicated to an overview of the available mast cells immunomodulatory drugs and their activity on multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, including our own experience related to the effect of ketotifen fumarate on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis evolution.
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Neuroprotection mediated by natural products and their chemical derivatives p. 2008
Fei Fei, Ning Su, Xia Li, Zhou Fei
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282240  PMID:32394948
Neuronal injuries can lead to various diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, trauma, ischemia and, more specifically, glaucoma and optic neuritis. The cellular mechanisms that regulate neuronal death include calcium influx and calcium overload, excitatory amino acid release, oxidative stress, inflammation and microglial activation. Much attention has been paid to the effective prevention and treatment of neuroprotective drugs by natural products. This review summarizes the neuroprotective aspects of natural products, extracted from Panax ginseng, Camellia sinensis, soy and some other plants, and some of their chemical derivatives. Their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory action and their inhibition of apoptosis and microglial activation are assessed. This will provide new directions for the development of novel drugs and strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.
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Reliable cell purification and determination of cell purity: crucial aspects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for spinal cord repair p. 2016
Ronak Reshamwala, Megha Shah, Lucy Belt, Jenny A. K. Ekberg, James A St John
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282218  PMID:32394949
Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells, the glia of the primary olfactory nervous system, has been trialed for spinal cord injury repair with promising but variable outcomes in animals and humans. Olfactory ensheathing cells can be harvested either from the lamina propria beneath the neuroepithelium in the nasal cavity, or from the olfactory bulb in the brain. As these areas contain several other cell types, isolating and purifying olfactory ensheathing cells is a critical part of the process. It is largely unknown how contaminating cells such as fibroblasts, other glial cell types and supporting cells affect olfactory ensheathing cell function post-transplantation; these cells may also cause unwanted side-effects. It is also, however, possible that the presence of some of the contaminant cells can improve outcomes. Here, we reviewed the last decade of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation studies in rodents, with a focus on olfactory ensheathing cell purity. We analyzed how purification methods and resultant cell purity differed between olfactory mucosa- and olfactory bulb-derived cell preparations. We analyzed how the studies reported on olfactory ensheathing cell purity and which criteria were used to define cells as olfactory ensheathing cells. Finally, we analyzed the correlation between cell purity and transplantation outcomes. We found that olfactory bulb-derived olfactory ensheathing cell preparations are typically purer than mucosa-derived preparations. We concluded that there is an association between high olfactory ensheathing cell purity and favourable outcomes, but the lack of olfactory ensheathing cell-specific markers severely hampers the field.
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PERSPECTIVES Top

Regrowth and neuronal protection are key for mammalian hibernation: roles for metabolic suppression p. 2027
Samantha M Logan, Kenneth B Storey
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282242  PMID:32394950
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Exercise, microglia, and beyond – workout to communicate with microglia p. 2029
Megumi Andoh, Ryuta Koyama
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282241  PMID:32394951
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Tunneling nanotubes and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in glaucoma p. 2031
Kate E Keller
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282254  PMID:32394952
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Synaptic receptors for low pH in extracellular space: metabotropic receptors are an underestimated factor in stroke p. 2033
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatsiana G Dubouskaya, Tatsiana V Waseem
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282249  PMID:32394953
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Regulation of β2-adrenoceptors in brain glia: implications for neuroinflammatory and degenerative disorders p. 2035
Karen M Ryan, Andrew Harkin
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282255  PMID:32394954
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Nogo-A and the regulation of neurotransmitter receptors p. 2037
Bor Luen Tang
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282250  PMID:32394955
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Perspectives on mild cognitive impairment as a precursor of Alzheimer's disease p. 2039
Rosamaria Fiorini, Simona Luzzi, Arianna Vignini
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282256  PMID:32394956
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How can proton pump inhibitors damage central and peripheral nervous systems? p. 2041
Tigran Makunts, Ruben Abagyan
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282252  PMID:32394957
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Dermic-derived fibroblasts for the study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis p. 2043
Javier Riancho, Sara Arozamena, Adolfo López de Munaín
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282257  PMID:32394958
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Using single cell transcriptomics to study the complexity of human retina p. 2045
Daniel Urrutia-Cabrera, Raymond Ching-Bong Wong
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282253  PMID:32394959
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RESEARCH ARTICLES: BRAIN INJURY AND NEURAL REGENERATION Top

Paired associated magnetic stimulation promotes neural repair in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke p. 2047
Bei-Yao Gao, Cheng-Cheng Sun, Guo-Hua Xia, Shao-Ting Zhou, Ye Zhang, Ye-Ran Mao, Pei-Le Liu, Ya Zheng, Dan Zhao, Xu-Tong Li, Janie Xu, Dong-Sheng Xu, Yu-Long Bai
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282266  PMID:32394960
Paired associative stimulation has been used in stroke patients as an innovative recovery treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effectiveness of paired associative stimulation on neurological function remain unclear. In this study, rats were randomly divided into middle cerebral occlusion model (MCAO) and paired associated magnetic stimulation (PAMS) groups. The MCAO rat model was produced by middle cerebral artery embolization. The PAMS group received PAMS on days 3 to 20 post MCAO. The MCAO group received sham stimulation, three times every week. Within 18 days after ischemia, rats were subjected to behavioral experiments—the foot-fault test, the balance beam walking test, and the ladder walking test. Balance ability was improved on days 15 and 17, and the foot-fault rate was less in their affected limb on day 15 in the PAMS group compared with the MCAO group. Western blot assay showed that the expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor, glutamate receptor 2/3, postsynaptic density protein 95 and synapsin-1 were significantly increased in the PAMS group compared with the MCAO group in the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex on day 21. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that regional brain activities in the sensorimotor cortex were increased in the ipsilateral hemisphere, but decreased in the contralateral hemisphere on day 20. By finite element simulation, the electric field distribution showed a higher intensity, of approximately 0.4 A/m2, in the ischemic cortex compared with the contralateral cortex in the template. Together, our findings show that PAMS upregulates neuroplasticity-related proteins, increases regional brain activity, and promotes functional recovery in the affected sensorimotor cortex in the rat MCAO model. The experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Fudan University, China (approval No. 201802173S) on March 3, 2018.
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Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor promotes the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in hypoxic environments p. 2057
Chao-Qun Lin, Lu-Kui Chen
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282262  PMID:32394962
Previous research found that cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) has a protective effect on brain dopaminergic neurons, and CDNF is regarded as a promising therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effects of CDNF on the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells (NSCs), which are very sensitive to hypoxic environments, remain unknown. In this study, NSCs were extracted from the hippocampi of fetal rats and cultured with different concentrations of CDNF. The results showed that 200 nM CDNF was the optimal concentration for significantly increasing the viability of NSCs under non-hypoxic environmental conditions. Then, the cells were cultured with 200 nM CDNF under the hypoxic conditions of 90% N2, 5% CO2, and 5% air for 6 hours. The results showed that CDNF significantly improved the viability of hypoxic NSCs and reduced apoptosis among hypoxic NSCs. The detection of markers showed that CDNF increased the differentiation of hypoxic NSCs into neurons and astrocytes. CDNF also reduced the expression level of Lin28 protein and increased the expression of Let-7 mRNA in NSCs, under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, we determined that CDNF was able to reverse the adverse proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis effects that normally affect NSCs in a hypoxic environment. Furthermore, the Lin28/Let-7 pathway may be involved in this regulated function of CDNF. The present study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Centre of Southeast University, China (approval No. 20180924006) on September 24, 2018.
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Injury of the dentatorubrothalamic tract in patients with post-traumatic tremor following mild traumatic brain injury: a case-control study p. 2063
Sung Ho Jang, Han Do Lee
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282259  PMID:32394963
Post-traumatic movement disorder is one of the sequelae of traumatic brain injury. The dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRTT) is reported to be involved in the control of movement. Therefore, injury of the DRTT can be accompanied by abnormal movements, including ataxia, tremor, or dystonia. We investigated DRTT injuries in 27 patients who showed post-traumatic tremor in at least one of four extremities following mild traumatic brain injury. We classified DRTT injuries based on diffusion tensor tractography parameters and configuration: type A: the DRTT showed narrowing, type B: the DRTT showed partial tearing, and type C: the DRTT showed discontinuation. Fractional anisotropy and fiber number of the DRTT were significantly decreased in patients compared with the healthy controls. Based on our DRTT injury classification, among the 54 hemispheres of the 27 patients, type A injury occurred in 22 hemispheres (40.7%) of 17 patients, type B injury was present in 15 hemispheres (27.7%) of 10 patients, and type C injury was observed in 8 hemispheres (14.8%) of 6 patients. Our results suggest that diffusion tensor tractography-based evaluation of the DRTT would be useful when determining cause of post-traumatic tremor in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Yeungnam University Hospital (YUMC-2018-09-007) on September 5, 2018.
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RESEARCH ARTICLES: NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES AND NEURAL REGENERATION Top

Aquatic exercise program-modulated oxidative stress markers in patients with Parkinson's disease p. 2067
Caroline Dani, Isabel Teixeira Proença, Jessica Marinho, Pâmela Peccin, Ivy Reichert Vital da Silva, Simone Nique, Vera Striebel, Daniela Pochmann, Viviane Rostirola Elsner
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.276337  PMID:32394964
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease. Oxidative stress, i.e., the imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species and the antioxidant defense capacity of the body, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Physical exercise can regulate oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to analyze the short- and long-term effects of an aquatic exercise program on oxidative stress levels in patients with Parkinson’s disease. The aquatic exercise program was carried out during 1 month with two sessions per week (1 hour/session). Blood samples were collected at four different time points: pre-intervention, immediately, 48 hours, and 30 days after the first session of aquatic exercise program. Our results revealed that water-based programs modulated antioxidant enzyme activity, increased superoxide dismutase activity, reduced catalase activity, and increased the ratio of superoxide dismutase activity to catalase activity in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Compared with pre-intervention and 48 hours after the first session of aquatic exercise program, superoxide dismutase activity was higher and catalase activity was lower immediately and 30 days after the first session. Our results demonstrated that aquatic exercise program could modulate oxidative stress, mainly by the effect of antioxidant enzyme activity. These results could better help understand the target of oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Centro Universitário Metodista IPA (approval No. 1.373.911) on August 9, 2019 and registered with REBEC (registration number: RBR-6NJ4MK).
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RESEARCH ARTICLES: BRAIN INJURY AND NEURAL REGENERATION Top

Acute effects of human protein S administration after traumatic brain injury in mice p. 2073
Xiaowei Wang, Jing Tong, Xiaodi Han, Xiaoming Qi, Jun Zhang, Erxi Wu, Jason H Huang
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282258  PMID:32394965
Despite years of effort, no effective acute phase treatment has been discovered for traumatic brain injury. One impediment to successful drug development is entangled secondary injury pathways. Here we show that protein S, a natural multifunctional protein that regulates coagulation, inflammation, and apoptosis, is able to reduce the extent of multiple secondary injuries in traumatic brain injury, and therefore improve prognosis. Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact were treated acutely (10–15 minutes post-injury) with a single dose of either protein S (1 mg/kg) or vehicle phosphate buffered saline via intravenous injection. At 24 hours post-injury, compared to the non-treated group, the protein S treated group showed substantial improvement of edema and fine motor coordination, as well as mitigation of progressive tissue loss. Immunohistochemistry and western blot targeting caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) along with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed that apoptosis was suppressed in treated animals. Immunohistochemistry targeting CD11b showed limited leukocyte infiltration in the protein S-treated group. Moreover, protein S treatment increased the ipsilesional expression of aquaporin-4, which may be the underlying mechanism of its function in reducing edema. These results indicate that immediate intravenous protein S treatment after controlled cortical impact is beneficial to traumatic brain injury prognosis. Animal Use Protocols (AUPs) were approved by the University Committee on Animal Resources (UCAR) of University of Rochester Medical Center (approval No. UCAR-2008-102R) on November 12, 2013.
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Effects of mild intrauterine hypoperfusion in the second trimester on memory and learning function in rat offspring p. 2082
Shao-Wei Yin, Yuan Wang, Yi-Lin Meng, Cai-Xia Liu
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282268  PMID:32394966
Mild intrauterine hypoperfusion (MIUH) is a serious pathological event that affects the growth and development of fetuses and offspring. MIUH can lead to growth restriction, low birth weight, neurodevelopmental disorders, and other adverse clinical outcomes. To study the effects of MIUH on learning and memory function in offspring, a model of MIUH was established by placing a coil (length 2.5 mm, diameter 0.24 mm) on the uterine artery and ovarian uterine artery of Sprague-Dawley rats in the second trimester of pregnancy (day 17). Next, 120 mg/kg lithium chloride (the MIUH + Li group) or normal saline (the MIUH group) was injected intraperitoneally into these rats. In addition, 120 mg/kg lithium chloride (the Li group) or normal saline (the SHAM group) was injected intraperitoneally into pregnant rats without coil placement. The Morris water maze was used to detect changes in learning and memory ability in the offspring at 4 weeks after birth. In the MIUH group, the escape latency and journey length before reaching the platform were both increased, and the number of times that the platform was crossed and the activity time in the target quadrant within 90 seconds were both decreased compared with the SHAM group. Immunofluorescence double staining and western blot assays demonstrated that hippocampal nestin and Ki67 (both cell-proliferation-related proteins) expression was significantly downregulated in the MIUH group compared with the SHAM group. Furthermore, western blot assays were conducted to investigate changes in related signaling pathway proteins in the brains of offspring rats, and revealed that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) expression was upregulated and β-catenin expression was downregulated in the MIUH group compared with the SHAM group. In addition, compared with the MIUH group, the expression levels of p-GSK3β and β-catenin were upregulated in the MIUH + Li group. These results suggest that MIUH may affect learning and memory function in rat offspring by regulating the GSK3β signaling pathway. The experimental procedures were approved by Animal Ethics Committee of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University (approval No. 2018PS07K) in June 2018.
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Research hotspots and effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation p. 2089
Ai-Hua Xu, Yong-Xin Sun
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282269  PMID:32394967
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, as a relatively new type of rehabilitation treatment, is a painless and non-invasive method for altering brain excitability. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been widely used in the neurorehabilitation of stroke patients. Here, we used CiteSpace software to visually analyze 315 studies concerning repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for stroke rehabilitation from 1999 to 2019, indexed by Web of Science, to clarify the research hotspots in different periods and characterize the gradual process of discovery in this field. We found that four main points were generally accepted: (1) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has a positive effect on motor function recovery in patients with subcortical stroke; (2) it may be more advantageous for stroke patients to receive low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the unaffected hemispheres than to receive high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in affected hemisphere; (3) low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has become a potential therapeutic tool for patients with non-fluent aphasia after chronic stroke for neurological rehabilitation and language recovery; and (4) there are some limitations to these classic clinical studies, such as small sample size and low test efficiency. Our assessment indicates that prospective, multi-center, large-sample, randomized controlled clinical trials are still needed to further verify the effectiveness of various repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation programs for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.
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RESEARCH ARTICLES: PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURY AND NEURAL REGENERATION Top

Human equivalent dose of oral 4-aminopyridine differentiates nerve crush injury from transection injury and improves post-injury function in mice p. 2098
Chia George Hsu, M A Hassan Talukder, Li Yue, Loel C Turpin, Mark Noble, John C Elfar
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.280319  PMID:32394968
4-Aminopyridine (4-AP), an FDA-approved drug for the symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis, is used to improve neuromuscular function in patients with diverse demyelinating disorders. We recently demonstrated that local, transdermal or injectable forms of 4-AP improve myelination, nerve conduction velocity, muscle atrophy, and motor function after traumatic peripheral nerve injury in mice. While oral 4-AP is most commonly used in the clinic, it is unknown whether human equivalent oral doses of 4-AP have effects on traumatic peripheral nerve injury differentiation, myelination, muscle atrophy, functional recovery, and post-injury inflammatory processes in animals. Mice with sciatic nerve crush or denervation injury received oral or intraperitoneal 4-AP (10 μg) or vehicle alone and were examined for pharmacokinetics, motor function, muscle mass, intrinsic muscle force, nerve morphological and gene expression profiles. 4-AP showed linear pharmacokinetics and the maximum plasma 4-AP concentrations were proportional to 4-AP dose. Acute single dose of oral 4-AP administration induced a rapid transient improvement in motor function that was different in traumatic peripheral nerve injury with or without nerve continuity, chronic daily oral 4-AP treatment significantly enhanced post crush injury motor function recovery and this effect was associated with improved myelination, muscle mass, and ex vivo muscle force. Polymerase chain reaction array analysis with crushed nerve revealed significant alterations in gene involved in axonal inflammation and regeneration. These findings provide convincing evidence that regardless of the route of administration, 4-AP can acutely differentiate traumatic peripheral nerve injury with or without nerve continuity and can enhance in vivo functional recovery with better preservation of myelin sheaths, muscle mass, and muscle force. The animal experiments were approved by the University Committee on Animal Research (UCAR) at the University of Rochester (UCAR-2009-019) on March 31, 2017.
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Intraoperative single administration of neutrophil peptide 1 accelerates the early functional recovery of peripheral nerves after crush injury p. 2108
Yu-Song Yuan, Su-Ping Niu, Fei Yu, Ya-Jun Zhang, Na Han, Hao Lu, Xiao-Feng Yin, Hai-Lin Xu, Yu-Hui Kou
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282270  PMID:32394969
Neutrophil peptide 1 belongs to a family of peptides involved in innate immunity. Continuous intramuscular injection of neutrophil peptide 1 can promote the regeneration of peripheral nerves, but clinical application in this manner is not convenient. To this end, the effects of a single intraoperative administration of neutrophil peptide 1 on peripheral nerve regeneration were experimentally observed. A rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury was established using the clamp method. After model establishment, a normal saline group and a neutrophil peptide 1 group were injected with a single dose of normal saline or 10 μg/mL neutrophil peptide 1, respectively. A sham group, without sciatic nerve crush was also prepared as a control. Sciatic nerve function tests, neuroelectrophysiological tests, and hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the nerve conduction velocity, sciatic functional index, and tibialis anterior muscle fiber cross-sectional area were better in the neutrophil peptide 1 group than in the normal saline group at 4 weeks after surgery. At 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, there were no differences in the wet weight of the tibialis anterior muscle between the neutrophil peptide 1 and saline groups. Histological staining of the sciatic nerve showed no significant differences in the number of myelinated nerve fibers or the axon cross-sectional area between the neutrophil peptide 1 and normal saline groups. The above data confirmed that a single dose of neutrophil peptide 1 during surgery can promote the recovery of neurological function 4 weeks after sciatic nerve injury. All the experiments were approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Peking University People’s Hospital, China (approval No. 2015-50) on December 9, 2015.
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Sequencing analysis of matrix metalloproteinase 7-induced genetic changes in Schwann cells p. 2116
Pan-Jian Lu, Gang Wang, Xiao-Dong Cai, Ping Zhang, Hong-Kui Wang
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282263  PMID:32394970
Previous research revealed the positive activity of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) on migration and myelin regeneration of Schwann cells (SCs). However, understanding of the molecular changes and biological activities induced by increased amounts of MMP7 in SCs remains limited. To better understand the underlying molecular events, primary SCs were isolated from the sciatic nerve stump of newborn rats and cultured with 10 nM human MMP7 for 24 hours. The results of genetic testing were analyzed at a relatively relaxed threshold value (fold change ≥ 1.5 and P-value < 0.05). Upon MMP7 exposure, 149 genes were found to be upregulated in SCs, whereas 133 genes were downregulated. Gene Ontology analysis suggested that many differentially expressed molecules were related to cellular processes, single-organism processes, and metabolic processes. Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis further indicated the critical involvement of cell signaling and metabolism in MMP7-induced molecular regulation of SCs. Results of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) also revealed that MMP7 regulates biological processes, molecular functions, cellular components, diseases and functions, biosynthesis, material metabolism, cell movement, and axon guidance. The outcomes of further analysis will deepen our comprehension of MMP7-induced biological changes in SCs. This study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethics Committee of Nantong University, China (approval No. 20190225-004) on February 27, 2019.
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RESEARCH ARTICLES: SPINAL CORD INJURY AND NEURAL REGENERATION Top

MicroRNA regulatory pattern in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury p. 2123
Zhi-Gang Liu, Yin Li, Jian-Hang Jiao, Hao Long, Zhuo-Yuan Xin, Xiao-Yu Yang
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.280323  PMID:32394971
After spinal cord injury, dysregulated miRNAs appear and can participate in inflammatory responses, as well as the inhibition of apoptosis and axon regeneration through multiple pathways. However, the functions of miRNAs in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury progression remain unclear. miRCURY LNATM Arrays were used to analyze miRNA expression profiles of rats after 90 minutes of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 24 and 48 hours. Furthermore, subsequent construction of aberrantly expressed miRNA regulatory patterns involved cell survival, proliferation, and apoptosis. Remarkably, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was the most significantly enriched pathway among 24- and 48-hour groups. Bioinformatics analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the persistent overexpression of miR-22-3p in both groups. These results suggest that the aberrant miRNA regulatory network is possibly regulated MAPK signaling and continuously affects the physiological and biochemical status of cells, thus participating in the regulation of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. As such, miR-22-3p may play sustained regulatory roles in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. All experimental procedures were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Jilin University, China [approval No. 2020 (Research) 01].
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RESEARCH ARTICLES: NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES AND NEURAL REGENERATION Top

Amyloid-beta peptide neurotoxicity in human neuronal cells is associated with modulation of insulin-like growth factor transport, lysosomal machinery and extracellular matrix receptor interactions p. 2131
Liting Deng, Paul A Haynes, Yunqi Wu, Ardeshir Amirkhani, Karthik Shantharam Kamath, Jemma X Wu, Kanishka Pushpitha, Veer Gupta, Stuart Graham, Vivek K Gupta, Mehdi Mirzaei
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282261  PMID:32394972
Extracellular deposits of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) are known as the main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s disease, neurons are injured and die throughout the brain, a process in which Aβ neurotoxicity is considered to play an important role. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Aβ toxicity that lead to neurodegeneration are not clearly established. Here we have elucidated the molecular pathways and networks which are impacted by Aβ in neurons using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells as a model. These cells were treated with Aβ1–42 peptides to study changes in biochemical networks using tandem mass tag labeled quantitative proteomic technique followed by computational analysis of the data. The molecular impacts of Aβ on cells were evident in a time- and dose-dependent manner, albeit the duration of treatment induced greater differential changes in cellular proteome compared to the effects of concentration. Aβ induced early changes in proteins associated with lysosomes, collagen chain trimerization and extracellular matrix receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascade, oxidative stress induced senescence, ribosome biogenesis, regulation of insulin-like growth factor transport and uptake by insulin-like growth factor-binding protein. These novel findings provide molecular insights on the effects of Aβ on neurons, with implications for better understanding the impacts of Aβ on early neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease pathology.
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Neuroprotective mechanisms of ε-viniferin in a rotenone-induced cell model of Parkinson's disease: significance of SIRT3-mediated FOXO3 deacetylation p. 2143
Shuo Zhang, Yan Ma, Juan Feng
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282264  PMID:32394973
Trans-(-)-ε-viniferin (ε-viniferin) has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. It also has neuroprotective effects in Huntington’s disease by activating the SIRT3/LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway; however, it remains unknown whether ε-viniferin also has a neuroprotective role in Parkinson’s disease. A Parkinson’s disease cell model was induced by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to 3.0 μM rotenone for 24 hours, and cells were then treated with 1.0 μM ε-viniferin for 24 hours. Treatment with ε-viniferin upregulated SIRT3 expression, which promoted FOXO3 deacetylation and nuclear localization. ε-Viniferin also increased ATP production and decreased reactive oxygen species production. Furthermore, ε-viniferin treatment alleviated rotenone-induced mitochondrial depolarization and reduced cell apoptosis, and restored the expression of mitochondrial homeostasis-related proteins. However, when cells were transfected with SIRT3 or FOXO3 shRNA prior to rotenone and ε-viniferin treatment, these changes were reversed. The results from the present study indicate that ε-viniferin enhances SIRT3-mediated FOXO3 deacetylation, reduces oxidative stress, and maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, thus inhibiting rotenone-induced cell apoptosis. ε-Viniferin may therefore be a promising treatment strategy for Parkinson’s disease.
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Knocking down TRPM2 expression reduces cell injury and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in PC12 cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation Highly accessed article p. 2154
Tao Pan, Qiu-Jiao Zhu, Li-Xiao Xu, Xin Ding, Jian-Qin Li, Bin Sun, Jun Hua, Xing Feng
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282271  PMID:32394974
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is an important ion channel that represents a potential target for treating injury caused by cerebral ischemia. However, it is unclear whether reducing TRPM2 expression can help repair cerebral injury, and if so what the mechanism underlying this process involves. This study investigated the protective effect of reducing TRPM2 expression on pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). PC12 cells were transfected with plasmid encoding TRPM2 shRNAS, then subjected to OGD by incubation in glucose-free medium under hypoxic conditions for 8 hours, after which the cells were allowed to reoxygenate for 24 hours. Apoptotic cells, mitochondrial membrane potentials, reactive oxygen species levels, and cellular calcium levels were detected using flow cytometry. The relative expression of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL2), NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain–containing protein 3 (NALP3), and caspase-1 were detected using fluorescence-based quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The rates of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potentials, reactive oxygen species levels, and cellular calcium levels in the TRPM2-shRNA + OGD group were lower than those observed in the OGD group. Taken together, these results suggest that TRPM2 knockdown reduces OGD-induced neuronal injury, potentially by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing oxidative stress levels, mitochondrial membrane potentials, intracellular calcium concentrations, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
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RESEARCH ARTICLES: PERIPHERAL NERVE INJURY AND NEURAL REGENERATION Top

Muscovite nanoparticles mitigate neuropathic pain by modulating the inflammatory response and neuroglial activation in the spinal cord p. 2162
Ju-Young Oh, Tae-Yeon Hwang, Jae-Hwan Jang, Ji-Yeun Park, Yeonhee Ryu, HyeJung Lee, Hi-Joon Park
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282260  PMID:32394976
Despite numerous efforts to overcome neuropathic pain, various pharmacological drugs often fail to meet the needs and have many side effects. Muscovite is an aluminosilicate mineral that has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect, but the efficacy of muscovite for neuropathic pain has not been investigated. Here, we assessed whether muscovite nanoparticles can reduce the symptoms of pain by controlling the inflammatory process observed in neuropathic pain. The analgesic effects of muscovite nanoparticles were explored using partial sciatic nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain, in which one-third to one-half of the nerve trifurcation of the sciatic nerve was tightly tied to the dorsal side. Muscovite nanoparticles (4 mg/100 μL) was given intramuscularly to evaluate its effects on neuropathic pain (3 days per week for 4 weeks). The results showed that the muscovite nanoparticle injections significantly alleviated partial sciatic nerve ligation-induced mechanical and cold allodynia. In the spinal cord, the muscovite nanoparticle injections exhibited inhibitory effects on astrocyte and microglia activation and reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleiukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which were upregulated in the partial sciatic nerve ligation model. Moreover, the muscovite nanoparticle injections resulted in a decrease in activating transcription factor 3, a neuronal injury marker, in the sciatic nerve. These results suggest that the analgesic effects of muscovite nanoparticle on partial sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain may result from inhibiting activation of astrocytes and microglia as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines. We propose that muscovite nanoparticle is a potential anti-nociceptive candidate for neuropathic pain. All experimental protocols in this study were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IACUC) at Dongguk University, South Korea (approval No. 2017-022-1) on September 28, 2017.
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CORRIGENDUM Top

Corrigendum: Target inhibition of caspase-8 alleviates brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282272  PMID:32394961
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Corrigendum: A rapid absorbance-based growth assay to screen the toxicity of oligomer Aβ42 and protect against cell death in yeast  

DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.282273  PMID:32394975
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