Gastrodin, an active component of tall gastrodia tuber, is widely used in the treatment of dizziness, paralysis, epilepsy, stroke and dementia, and exhibits a neuroprotective effect. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using Allen's method, and gastrodin was administered via the subarachnoid cavity and by intraperitoneal injection for 7 days. Results show that gastrodin promoted the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats with spinal cord injury. After gastrodin treatment, the maximum angle of the inclined plane test, and the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores increased. Moreover, gastrodin improved neural tissue recovery in the injured spinal cord. These results demonstrate that gastrodin promotes the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, contributes to the recovery of neurological function, and protects neural cells against injury.
(1) Gastrodin significantly contributes to the recovery of neurological function in rats with spinal cord injury.
(2) Gastrodin promotes the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the injured spinal cord.
(3) Gastrodin can maintain a uniform distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the spinal cord tissue, and stabilize the microenvironment following spinal cord injury.
Background: Glioma is the most common intracranial tumor and has a poor patient prognosis. The presence of brain tumor stem cells was gradually being understood and recognized, which might be beneficial for the treatment of glioma.
Objective: To use bibliometric indexes to track study focuses on glioma stem cell, and to investigate the relationships among geographic origin, impact factors, and highly cited articles indexed in Web of Science.
Methods: A list of citation classics for glioma stem cells was generated by searching the database of Web of Science-Expanded using the terms “glioma stem cell” or “glioma, stem cell’” or “brain tumor stem cell”. The top 63 cited research articles which were cited more than 100 times were retrieved by reading the abstract or full text if needed. Each eligible article was reviewed for basic information on subject categories, country of origin, journals, authors, and source of journals. Inclusive criteria: (1) articles in the field of glioma stem cells which was cited more than 100 times; (2) fundamental research on humans or animals, clinical trials and case reports; (3) research article; (4) year of publication: 1899-2012; and (5) citation database: Science Citation Index-Expanded. Exclusive criteria: (1) articles needing to be manually searched or accessed only by telephone; (2) unpublished articles; and (3) reviews, conference proceedings, as well as corrected papers.
Results: Of 2 040 articles published, the 63 top-cited articles were published between 1992 and 2010. The number of citations ranged from 100 to 1 754, with a mean of 280 citations per article. These citation classics came from nineteen countries, of which 46 articles came from the United States. Duke University and University of California, San Francisco led the list of classics with seven papers each. The 63 top-cited articles were published in 28 journals, predominantly Cancer Research and Cancer Cell, followed by Cell Stem Cell and Nature.
Conclusion: Our bibliometric analysis provides a historical perspective on the progress of glioma stem cell research. Articles originating from outstanding institutions of the United States and published in high-impact journals are most likely to be cited.
The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene is a candidate gene of stroke. The present study involved 62 healthy volunteers and 148 patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis as confirmed by brain color ultrasound from a Han population in North China, and determined the peripheral blood angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results showed that the frequencies of the DD genotype and D allele were increased in patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis, but the difference was not statistically significant compared with healthy controls. The findings of this study on the relationship between stroke genes and middle cerebral artery stenosis indicate no significant correlation between the frequencies of the DD genotype and D allele of angiotensin-converting enzyme and middle cerebral artery stenosis in this Han population from North China. In the future, studies will be carried out to investigate correlations between multiple stroke candidate gene synergy and middle cerebral artery stenosis to provide a foundation for the development of gene therapy.
(1) PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to determine angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes in normal volunteers and patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis as confirmed by brain color ultrasound in a Han population from North China.
(2) The results indicate no significant correlation between the frequencies of the DD genotype and D allele of angiotensin-converting enzyme and middle cerebral artery stenosis in the Han population from North China.
The persimmon leaf has been shown to improve cerebral ischemic outcomes; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, mice were subjected to 10 minutes of ischemic preconditioning, and persimmon leaf flavonoid was orally administered for 5 days. Results showed that the persimmon leaf flavonoid significantly improved the content of tissue type plasminogen activator and 6-keto prostaglandin-F1 α in the cerebral cortex, decreased the content of thromboxane B2, and reduced the content of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in mice. Following optical microscopy, persimmon leaf flavonoid was also shown to reduce cell swelling and nuclear hyperchromatism in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. These results suggested that persimmon leaf flavonoid can effectively inhibit brain thrombosis, improve blood supply to the brain, and relieve ischemia-induced pathological damage, resulting in brain ischemic tolerance.
(1) This study verified that persimmon leaf flavonoid can induce brain ischemic tolerance.
(2) The mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of persimmon leaf flavonoid against cerebral ischemia injury involved dissolving the thrombus, reducing endothelial cell damage, increasing brain ischemic tolerance and reducing cerebral infarction.
The distribution of sensory symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome is strongly dependent on the degree of electrophysiological dysfunction of the median nerve. The association between carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar nerve entrapment is still unclear. In this study, we measured ulnar nerve function in 82 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The patients were divided into group I with minimal carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 35) and group II with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 47) according to electrophysiological data. Sixty-one age- and sex-matched subjects without carpal tunnel syndrome were used as a control group. There were no significant differences in ulnar sensory nerve peak latencies or conduction velocities from the 4th and 5th fingers between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and the control group. The ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitudes from the 4th and 5th fingers were lower in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome than in the control group. The ratios of the ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitudes from the 4th and 5th fingers were almost the same in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome as in the control group. These findings indicate that in patients with minimal to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome, there is some electrophysiological evidence of traction on the adjacent ulnar nerve fibers. The findings do not indicate axonal degeneration of the ulnar nerve.
(1) This study focused on patients with minimal, mild, or moderate carpal tunnel syndrome.
(2) This study used the ratios of the ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitudes from the 4th and 5th fingers to measure changes in ulnar nerve function secondary to carpal tunnel syndrome.
(3) The insignificant reduction in ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitudes may have been caused by mechanical traction on the ulnar nerve fibers secondary to carpal tunnel syndrome.
Oxysophoridine, a new alkaloid extracted from Sophora alopecuroides L., has been shown to have a protective effect against ischemic brain damage. In this study, a focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury model was established using middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Both 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg oxysophoridine, via intraperitoneal injection, and 6 mg/kg nimodipine, via intragastric administration, were administered daily for 7 days before modeling. After 24 hours of reperfusion, mice were tested for neurological deficit, cerebral infarct size was assessed and brain tissue was collected. Results showed that oxysophoridine at 125, 250 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg nimodipine could reduce neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct size and brain water content in mice. These results provided evidence that oxysophoridine plays a protective role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, oxysophoridine at 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg nimodipine increased adenosine-triphosphate content, and decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide content. These compounds enhanced the activities of glutathione-peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lactate dehydrogenase, and decreased the activity of nitric oxide synthase. Protein and mRNA expression levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 were markedly inhibited in the presence of 250 mg/kg oxysophoridine and 6 mg/kg nimodipine. Our experimental findings indicated that oxysophoridine has a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice, and that the effect may be due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress and expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1.
(1) Oxysophoridine has a protective effect against ischemic brain damage. However, few studies have examined its role against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
(2) This study is the first to demonstrate the neuroprotective mechanism underlying oxysophoridine against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
(3) Similar to nimodipine, oxysophoridine has a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and its mechanism of action is related to its antioxidant properties and inhibition of the glutamic acid receptor pathway.
Our previous studies have shown that infection with the gp120 V3 loop can cause human immunodeficiency virus-1 associated neurocognitive disorders. Curcumin has been shown to improve these effects to some degree, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. The present study analyzed the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of curcumin in relation to hippocampal neurons. Results showed that 1 nmol/L gp120 V3 loop suppressed the growth of synapses. After administration of 1 μmol/L curcumin, synaptic growth improved. Curcumin is neuroprotective against gp120 V3 loop-induced neuronal damage by inhibiting the activation of L-type calcium currents, relieving intracellular Ca2+ overload, promoting Bcl-2 expression, and inhibiting Bax activation. The effect of curcumin was identical to nimodipine, suggesting that curcumin has the same neuroprotective effects against gp120 V3 loop-induced neuronal damage.
(1) Our previous studies showed that the application of curcumin could reverse the neurocognitive impairment caused by human immunodeficiency virus-1. In this study, we analyzed the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of curcumin on gp120 V3-induced neuronal injury in cultured neurons.
(2) Curcumin improved the growth of synapses, relieved intracellular Ca2+ overload, promoted Bcl-2 expression, and inhibited Bax activation.
The brain as a system with gradually decreasing resources maximizes its chances by reorganizing neural networks to ensure efficient performance. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded in 28 healthy volunteers comprising 14 young and 14 elderly subjects in auditory discrimination motor task (low frequency tone - right hand movement and high frequency tone - left hand movement). The amplitudes of the sensory event-related potential components (N1, P2) were more pronounced with increasing age for either tone and this effect for P2 amplitude was more pronounced in the frontal region. The latency relationship of N1 between the groups was tone-dependent, while that of P2 was tone-independent with a prominent delay in the elderly group over all brain regions. The amplitudes of the cognitive components (N2, P3) diminished with increasing age and the hemispheric asymmetry of N2 (but not for P3) reduced with increasing age. Prolonged N2 latency with increasing age was widespread for either tone while between-group difference in P3 latency was tone-dependent. High frequency tone stimulation and movement requirements lead to P3 delay in the elderly group. The amplitude difference of the sensory components between the age groups could be due to a general greater alertness, less expressed habituation, or decline in the ability to retreat attentional resources from the stimuli in the elderly group. With aging, a neural circuit reorganization of the brain activity affects the cognitive processes. The approach used in this study is useful for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging for early treatment of cognitive alterations and dementia.
(1) The study investigated the effects of aging on auditory event-related brain potentials usable for clinical evaluation of perceptual, attention-related and cognitive processes.
(2) The difference of tone-evoked event-related brain potential components was compared between young and aging subjects.
(3) The approach used in this study can be useful for an early discrimination between normal and pathological brain aging for early treatment of cognitive alterations and dementia.
Emodin, an extract of dried rhizomes and the root of the Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, can protect neurons from hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. This study aimed to verify the underlying mechanism. After PC12 cells had differentiated into neuron-like cells under the induction of mouse nerve growth factor, cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and treated with emodin. Results showed that the viability of neuron-like cells cultured under an ischemia-hypoxia environment decreased, while the expression of activin A and caspase-3 in cells increased. Emodin raised the survival rate of oxygen-glucose deprived neuron-like cells, increased activin A expression, and decreased caspase-3 expression. Experimental findings indicate that emodin can inhibit neuronal apoptosis and alleviate the injury of nerve cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation through the activin A pathway.
(1) Emodin can improve the viability of neurons following ischemic-hypoxic injury, upregulate the expression of activin A, and downregulate the expression of caspase-3, thus inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and playing a neuroprotective role.
(2) The oxygen-glucose deprived PC12 model was established using the combined method of physical chemistry with some modifications.
(3) Unlike other studies, we aimed to observe changes in activin A expression and the signaling pathway involved following ischemic injury in neurons subjected to emodin intervention.
Stroke presents as a transient or chronic brain dysfunction and is associated with high morbidity and high mortality. The doctors and scientists would like to argue how to enhance the validity of the rehabilitation treatment and how to further improve the level of treatment on stroke.
The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the current worldwide progress in research on stroke rehabilitation treatment based on Web of Science database and ClinicalTrial.gov in the past 10 years.
We conducted a quantitative analysis of clinical trial articles regarding stroke rehabilitation published in English from 2003 to 2013 and indexed in the National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials registry and Web of Science databases. Data were downloaded on March 15, 2013.
(1) From 2003 to 2013, 2 654 clinical trials investigating stroke were indexed in ClinicalTrials.gov. There were only 58 clinical trials registered in 2003, and there was a marked increase from 2005. A total of 605 clinical trials on the rehabilitation of stroke were conducted in the past 10 years. (2) The analysis showed that most of the trials in the field were registered by North American institutions. With respect to the Asian countries, China and Taiwan area of China also published a reasonable proportion of the trials, but comparatively speaking, the number of trials is really rare. Most of the interventions were drugs, followed by the devices, and behavioral interventions were ranked third. (3) In the past 10 years, there were 4 052 studies on stroke indexed by Web of Science database.
From perspective of research progress, we found that the number of clinical trials and papers on stroke rehabilitation has increased significantly in the past 10 years, between them a remarkable positive correlation exists.