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  Most popular articles (Since September 18, 2013)

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By using either endogenous or transplanted stem cells, which could you prefer for neural regeneration?
Satoru Matsuda, Yukie Nakagawa, Kumi Amano, Yuka Ikeda, Ai Tsuji, Yasuko Kitagishi
October 2018, 13(10):1731-1732
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.238609  PMID:30136684
  3,636 10,518 -
Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy: a systematic review
Chunkui Zhou, Limin Wu, Fengming Ni, Wei Ji, Jiang Wu, Hongliang Zhang
1st January 2014, 9(1):101-110
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.125337  PMID:25206749
Critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy are frequent complications of severe illness that involve sensorimotor axons and skeletal muscles, respectively. Clinically, they manifest as limb and respiratory muscle weakness. Critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy in isolation or combination increases intensive care unit morbidity via the inability or difficulty in weaning these patients off mechanical ventilation. Many patients continue to suffer from decreased exercise capacity and compromised quality of life for months to years after the acute event. Substantial progress has been made lately in the understanding of the pathophysiology of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy. Clinical and ancillary test results should be carefully interpreted to differentiate critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy from similar weaknesses in this patient population. The present review is aimed at providing the latest knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy along with relevant clinical, diagnostic, differentiating, and treatment information for this debilitating neurological disease.
  10,471 3,064 33
Roles of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury
Chong Wang, Chang-feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-dong Hu, Yu Wang
December 2017, 12(12):2106-2112
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.221171  PMID:29323053
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury. Transplanted neural stem cells can differentiate into motor neurons that innervate muscles and promote the recovery of neurological function. To promote the repair of peripheral nerve injury, neural stem cells secrete various neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor. In addition, neural stem cells also promote regeneration of the axonal myelin sheath, angiogenesis, and immune regulation. It can be concluded that neural stem cells promote the repair of peripheral nerve injury through a variety of ways.
  12,132 884 16
Neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases
Selvaraju Subash, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Samir Al-Adawi, Mushtaq A Memon, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Mohammed Akbar
15th August 2014, 9(16):1557-1566
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.139483  PMID:25317174
Recent clinical research has demonstrated that berry fruits can prevent age-related neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor and cognitive functions. The berry fruits are also capable of modulating signaling pathways involved in inflammation, cell survival, neurotransmission and enhancing neuroplasticity. The neuroprotective effects of berry fruits on neurodegenerative diseases are related to phytochemicals such as anthocyanin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannin. In this review, we made an attempt to clearly describe the beneficial effects of various types of berries as promising neuroprotective agents.
  9,544 1,389 54
Effects of medicinal plants on Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits
Muhammad Akram, Allah Nawaz
April 2017, 12(4):660-670
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.205108  PMID:28553349
Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits. Various studies have been carried out to find therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. However, the proper treatment option is still not available. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but symptomatic treatment may improve the memory and other dementia related problems. Traditional medicine is practiced worldwide as memory enhancer since ancient times. Natural therapy including herbs and medicinal plants has been used in the treatment of memory deficits such as dementia, amnesia, as well as Alzheimer's disease since a long time. Medicinal plants have been used in different systems of medicine, particularly Unani system of medicines and exhibited their powerful roles in the management and cure of memory disorders. Most of herbs and plants have been chemically evaluated and their efficacy has also been proven in clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms of actions are still on the way. In this paper, we have reviewed the role of different medicinal plants that play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits using conventional herbal therapy.
  8,217 1,505 15
BDNF pro-peptide: a novel synaptic modulator generated as an N-terminal fragment from the BDNF precursor by proteolytic processing
Toshiyuki Mizui, Koji Ohira, Masami Kojima
July 2017, 12(7):1024-1027
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.211173  PMID:28852376
Most growth factors are initially synthesized as precursors and it was cleaved into bioactive mature domain and pro-domain. However, compared with the expression and function of bioactive mature domain, the biological role of the pro-domain is poorly understood. Unexpectedly, we found that the pro-domain (or pro-peptide) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is well-known neurotrophic factor in brain, has a potential ability to facilitate hippocampal long-term depression. Furthermore, a BDNF polymorphism Val66Met, which substitute valine into methionine at 66 amino acid, impacted the biological activity of the BDNF pro-peptide. We lastly discuss the possible roles of BDNF and its pro-peptide in the generation of neural stem cells and progress of ischemia.
  2,435 6,932 7
Practical application of the neuroregenerative properties of ketamine: real world treatment experience
Theodore A Henderson
February 2016, 11(2):195-200
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.177708  PMID:27073354
While controversial, ketamine has emerged as an effective treatment for refractory depression. Serial infusions have been performed 3 times per week, but our practical experience has challenged this precept concerning infusion frequency. Depression is associated with neuron loss, reduced synapse numbers, and dearborization of dendrites. Ketamine appears to potently induce mechanisms which reverse these neurodegenerative processes. Ketamine not only blocks the glutamate receptor, it activates eukaroyotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This, in turn, activates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein synthesis. This is thought to underlie ketamine's enduring benefits. In addition, ketamine alters glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) phosphorylation, probably responsible for its rapid antidepressant effect. Notably, inhibition of the BDNF receptor does not block the immediate benefits of ketamine, but does prevent the enduring effects. Neuro-Luminance Ketamine Infusion Centers have been treating patients with serial ketamine infusions for over three years. Our methods differ from what is often reported, as we perform infusions only once per week and generally do not perform more than five infusions. Data from 100 patients showed that 80% of the patients responded. The baseline Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS-SR) score was 17.8 ± 2.8. Responders to ketamine showed a drop in QIDS-SR score of 10.8 ± 3.5, while non-responders showed a 0.8 ± 1.8 change. Moreover, they often had persistent benefits over several months. Recently, it was proposed that psychotomimetic effects are necessary during a ketamine infusion to yield effective antidepressant benefits. Yet, only one patient in our clinic has experienced hallucinations in three years. Nevertheless, 80% of our patients show clinical improvement. Further studies of clinical methods for ketamine infusion therapy are encouraged.
  7,919 1,071 8
The dynamics of adult neurogenesis in human hippocampus
Amadi O Ihunwo, Lackson H Tembo, Charles Dzamalala
December 2016, 11(12):1869-1883
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.195278  PMID:28197172
The phenomenon of adult neurogenesis is now an accepted occurrence in mammals and also in humans. At least two discrete places house stem cells for generation of neurons in adult brain. These are olfactory system and the hippocampus. In animals, newly generated neurons have been directly or indirectly demonstrated to generate a significant amount of new neurons to have a functional role. However, the data in humans on the extent of this process is still scanty and such as difficult to comprehend its functional role in humans. This paper explores the available data on as extent of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in humans and makes comparison to animal data.
  3,796 4,685 18
Neurological and neuropsychological consequences of electrical and lightning shock: review and theories of causation
Christopher J Andrews, Andrew D Reisner
May 2017, 12(5):677-686
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.206636  PMID:28616016
Injuries from lightning and electrical injuries involve multiple systems of the body, however neurological symptoms are very widely reported. A disabling neuropsychological syndrome is also noted. This paper presents a comprehensive review of neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. Partial theories ofcausation for these injuries have been advanced, however, there is no convincing explanation for both delay in onset of symptoms and also the genesis of the neuropsychological syndrome. A theory of causation is proposed which satisfies both these constraints. This theory suggests circulating hormones such as cortisol, together with nitric oxide and oxidant free radicals from glutamatergic hyper-stimulation, act on tissues remote from the injury path including the hippocampus. This theory opens a research path to explore treatment options.
  7,499 877 9
The role of Epstein-Barr virus in multiple sclerosis: from molecular pathophysiology to in vivo imaging
Yi Guan, Dejan Jakimovski, Murali Ramanathan, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov
March 2019, 14(3):373-386
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.245462  PMID:30539801
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal damage. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with the risk of developing MS, but the exact cause still remains unidentified. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), vitamin D, and smoking are among the most well-established environmental risk factors in MS. Infectious mononucleosis, which is caused by delayed primary EBV infection, increases the risk of developing MS. EBV may also contribute to MS pathogenesis indirectly by activating silent human endogenous retrovirus-W. The emerging B-cell depleting therapies, particularly anti-CD20 agents such as rituximab, ocrelizumab, as well as the fully human ofatumumab, have shown promising clinical and magnetic resonance imaging benefit. One potential effect of these therapies is the depletion of memory B-cells, the primary reservoir site where EBV latency occurs. In addition, EBV potentially interacts with both genetic and other environmental factors to increase susceptibility and disease severity of MS. This review examines the role of EBV in MS pathophysiology and summarizes the recent clinical and radiological findings, with a focus on B-cells and in vivo imaging. Addressing the potential link between EBV and MS allows the better understanding of MS pathogenesis and helps to identify additional disease biomarkers that may be responsive to B-cell depleting intervention.
  7,118 1,181 23
Diffuse axonal injury after traumatic cerebral microbleeds: an evaluation of imaging techniques
Jun Liu, Zhifeng Kou, Yongquan Tian
15th June 2014, 9(12):1222-1230
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.135330  PMID:25206786
Previous neuropathological studies regarding traumatic brain injury have primarily focused on changes in large structures, for example, the clinical prognosis after cerebral contusion, intracerebral hematoma, and epidural and subdural hematoma. In fact, many smaller injuries can also lead to severe neurological disorders. For example, cerebral microbleeds result in the dysfunction of adjacent neurons and the disassociation between cortex and subcortical structures. These tiny changes cannot be adequately visualized on CT or conventional MRI. In contrast, gradient echo sequence-based susceptibility-weighted imaging is very sensitive to blood metabolites and microbleeds, and can be used to evaluate traumatic cerebral microbleeds with high sensitivity and accuracy. Cerebral microbleed can be considered as an important imaging marker for diffuse axonal injury with potential relevance for prognosis. For this reason, based on experimental and clinical studies, this study reviews the role of imaging data showing traumatic cerebral microbleeds in the evaluation of cerebral neuronal injury and neurofunctional loss.
  6,816 931 28
Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report
Jeffrey N Weiss, Steven Levy, Alexis Malkin
June 2015, 10(6):982-988
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.158365  PMID:26199618
In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS). SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date- www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD) and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS). Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.
  6,899 823 21
Advances in regenerative therapies for spinal cord injury: a biomaterials approach
Magdalini Tsintou, Kyriakos Dalamagkas, Alexander Marcus Seifalian
May 2015, 10(5):726-742
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.156966  PMID:26109946
Spinal cord injury results in the permanent loss of function, causing enormous personal, social and economic problems. Even though neural regeneration has been proven to be a natural mechanism, central nervous system repair mechanisms are ineffective due to the imbalance of the inhibitory and excitatory factors implicated in neuroregeneration. Therefore, there is growing research interest on discovering a novel therapeutic strategy for effective spinal cord injury repair. To this direction, cell-based delivery strategies, biomolecule delivery strategies as well as scaffold-based therapeutic strategies have been developed with a tendency to seek for the answer to a combinatorial approach of all the above. Here we review the recent advances on regenerative/neural engineering therapies for spinal cord injury, aiming at providing an insight to the most promising repair strategies, in order to facilitate future research conduction.
  6,070 1,489 50
Optogenetics and its application in neural degeneration and regeneration
Josue D Ordaz, Wei Wu, Xiao-Ming Xu
August 2017, 12(8):1197-1209
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.213532  PMID:28966628
Neural degeneration and regeneration are important topics in neurological diseases. There are limited options for therapeutic interventions in neurological diseases that provide simultaneous spatial and temporal control of neurons. This drawback increases side effects due to non-specific targeting. Optogenetics is a technology that allows precise spatial and temporal control of cells. Therefore, this technique has high potential as a therapeutic strategy for neurological diseases. Even though the application of optogenetics in understanding brain functional organization and complex behaviour states have been elaborated, reviews of its therapeutic potential especially in neurodegeneration and regeneration are still limited. This short review presents representative work in optogenetics in disease models such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. It is aimed to provide a broader perspective on optogenetic therapeutic potential in neurodegeneration and neural regeneration.
  6,036 1,480 11
Structural and functional reorganization of propriospinal connections promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury
Linard Filli, Martin E Schwab
April 2015, 10(4):509-513
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.155425  PMID:26170799
Axonal regeneration and fiber regrowth is limited in the adult central nervous system, but research over the last decades has revealed a high intrinsic capacity of brain and spinal cord circuits to adapt and reorganize after smaller injuries or denervation. Short-distance fiber growth and synaptic rewiring was found in cortex, brain stem and spinal cord and could be associated with restoration of sensorimotor functions that were impaired by the injury. Such processes of structural plasticity were initially observed in the corticospinal system following spinal cord injury or stroke, but recent studies showed an equally high potential for structural and functional reorganization in reticulospinal, rubrospinal or propriospinal projections. Here we review the lesion-induced plastic changes in the propriospinal pathways, and we argue that they represent a key mechanism triggering sensorimotor recovery upon incomplete spinal cord injury. The formation or strengthening of spinal detour pathways bypassing supraspinal commands around the lesion site to the denervated spinal cord were identified as prominent neural substrate inducing substantial motor recovery in different species from mice to primates. Indications for the existence of propriospinal bypasses were also found in humans after cortical stroke. It is mandatory for current research to dissect the biological mechanisms underlying spinal circuit remodeling and to investigate how these processes can be stimulated in an optimal way by therapeutic interventions (e.g., fiber-growth enhancing interventions, rehabilitation). This knowledge will clear the way for the development of novel strategies targeting the remarkable plastic potential of propriospinal circuits to maximize functional recovery after spinal cord injury.
  5,937 1,521 35
Stem cells: a promising candidate to treat neurological disorders
Chang-Geng Song, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Hai-Ning Wu, Xiu-Li Cao, Chen-Jun Guo, Yong-Qiang Li, Min-Hua Zheng, Hua Han
July 2018, 13(7):1294-1304
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.235085  PMID:30028342
Neurologic impairments are usually irreversible as a result of limited regeneration in the central nervous system. Therefore, based on the regenerative capacity of stem cells, transplantation therapies of various stem cells have been tested in basic research and preclinical trials, and some have shown great prospects. This manuscript overviews the cellular and molecular characteristics of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, neural stem cells, retinal stem/progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, and their derivatives in vivo and in vitro as sources for regenerative therapy. These cells have all been considered as candidates to treat several major neurological disorders and diseases, owing to their self-renewal capacity, multi-directional differentiation, neurotrophic properties, and immune modulation effects. We also review representative basic research and recent clinical trials using stem cells for neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and age-related macular degeneration, as well as traumatic brain injury and glioblastoma. In spite of a few unsuccessful cases, risks of tumorigenicity, and ethical concerns, most results of animal experiments and clinical trials demonstrate efficacious therapeutic effects of stem cells in the treatment of nervous system disease. In summary, these emerging findings in regenerative medicine are likely to contribute to breakthroughs in the treatment of neurological disorders. Thus, stem cells are a promising candidate for the treatment of nervous system diseases.
  6,073 1,044 27
Virtual reality training improves balance function
Yurong Mao, Peiming Chen, Le Li, Dongfeng Huang
1st September 2014, 9(17):1628-1634
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.141795  PMID:25368651
Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.
  5,622 1,485 18
Virtual reality interface devices in the reorganization of neural networks in the brain of patients with neurological diseases
Valeska Gatica-Rojas, Guillermo Méndez-Rebolledo
15th April 2014, 9(8):888-896
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.131612  PMID:25206907
Two key characteristics of all virtual reality applications are interaction and immersion. Systemic interaction is achieved through a variety of multisensory channels (hearing, sight, touch, and smell), permitting the user to interact with the virtual world in real time. Immersion is the degree to which a person can feel wrapped in the virtual world through a defined interface. Virtual reality interface devices such as the Nintendo® Wii and its peripheral nunchuks-balance board, head mounted displays and joystick allow interaction and immersion in unreal environments created from computer software. Virtual environments are highly interactive, generating great activation of visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems during the execution of a video game. In addition, they are entertaining and safe for the user. Recently, incorporating therapeutic purposes in virtual reality interface devices has allowed them to be used for the rehabilitation of neurological patients, e.g., balance training in older adults and dynamic stability in healthy participants. The improvements observed in neurological diseases (chronic stroke and cerebral palsy) have been shown by changes in the reorganization of neural networks in patients' brain, along with better hand function and other skills, contributing to their quality of life. The data generated by such studies could substantially contribute to physical rehabilitation strategies.
  5,593 1,338 31
Use of curcumin in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Min Chen, Zhi-Yun Du, Xi Zheng, Dong-Li Li, Ren-Ping Zhou, Kun Zhang
April 2018, 13(4):742-752
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.230303  PMID:29722330
This review summarizes and describes the use of curcumin in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. For diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-β and highly phosphorylated tau protein are the major biomarkers. Curcumin was developed as an early diagnostic probe based on its natural fluorescence and high binding affinity to amyloid-β. Because of its multi-target effects, curcumin has protective and preventive effects on many chronic diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. For prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, curcumin has been shown to effectively maintain the normal structure and function of cerebral vessels, mitochondria, and synapses, reduce risk factors for a variety of chronic diseases, and decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease. The effect of curcumin on Alzheimer's disease involves multiple signaling pathways: anti-amyloid and metal iron chelating properties, antioxidation and anti-inflammatory activities. Indeed, there is a scientific basis for the rational application of curcumin in prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
  5,725 1,188 29
Target morphology and cell memory: a model of regenerative pattern formation
Nikolai Bessonov, Michael Levin, Nadya Morozova, Natalia Reinberg, Alen Tosenberger, Vitaly Volpert
December 2015, 10(12):1901-1905
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.165216  PMID:26889161
Despite the growing body of work on molecular components required for regenerative repair, we still lack a deep understanding of the ability of some animal species to regenerate their appropriate complex anatomical structure following damage. A key question is how regenerating systems know when to stop growth and remodeling - what mechanisms implement recognition of correct morphology that signals a stop condition? In this work, we review two conceptual models of pattern regeneration that implement a kind of pattern memory. In the first one, all cells communicate with each other and keep the value of the total signal received from the other cells. If a part of the pattern is amputated, the signal distribution changes. The difference fromthe original signal distribution stimulates cell proliferation and leads to pattern regeneration, in effect implementing an error minimization process that uses signaling memory to achieve pattern correction. In the second model, we consider a more complex pattern organization with different cell types. Each tissue contains a central (coordinator) cell that controls the tissue and communicates with the other central cells. Each of them keeps memory about the signals received from other central cells. The values of these signals depend on the mutual cell location, and the memory allows regeneration of the structure when it is modified. The purpose of these models is to suggest possible mechanisms of pattern regeneration operating on the basis of cell memory which are compatible with diverse molecular implementation mechanisms within specific organisms.
  2,297 4,594 4
Curcumin and Apigenin - novel and promising therapeutics against chronic neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease
Madhuri Venigalla, Sandra Sonego, Erika Gyengesi, Gerald Münch
August 2015, 10(8):1181-1185
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.162686  PMID:26487830
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by deposition of amyloid beta, neurofibrillary tangles, astrogliosis and microgliosis, leading to neuronal dysfunction and loss in the brain. Current treatments for Alzheimer's disease primarily focus on enhancement of cholinergic transmission. However, these treatments are only symptomatic, and no disease-modifying drug is available for Alzheimer's disease patients. This review will provide an overview of the proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, neuroprotective, and cognition-enhancing effects of curcumin and apigenin and discuss the potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease prevention and treatment. We suggest that these compounds might delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease or slow down its progression, and they should enter clinical trials as soon as possible.
  5,627 1,243 60
Gastrodin promotes the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the injured spinal cord
Changwei Song, Shiqiang Fang, Gang Lv, Xifan Mei
25th May 2013, 8(15):1383-1389

Gastrodin, an active component of tall gastrodia tuber, is widely used in the treatment of dizziness, paralysis, epilepsy, stroke and dementia, and exhibits a neuroprotective effect. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using Allen's method, and gastrodin was administered via the subarachnoid cavity and by intraperitoneal injection for 7 days. Results show that gastrodin promoted the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats with spinal cord injury. After gastrodin treatment, the maximum angle of the inclined plane test, and the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores increased. Moreover, gastrodin improved neural tissue recovery in the injured spinal cord. These results demonstrate that gastrodin promotes the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, contributes to the recovery of neurological function, and protects neural cells against injury.

Research Highlights

(1) Gastrodin significantly contributes to the recovery of neurological function in rats with spinal cord injury.

(2) Gastrodin promotes the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the injured spinal cord.

(3) Gastrodin can maintain a uniform distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the spinal cord tissue, and stabilize the microenvironment following spinal cord injury.

  6,300 359 -
Autophagy: a double-edged sword for neuronal survival after cerebral ischemia
Wenqi Chen, Yinyi Sun, Kangyong Liu, Xiaojiang Sun
15th June 2014, 9(12):1210-1216
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.135329  PMID:25206784
Evidence suggests that autophagy may be a new therapeutic target for stroke, but whether activation of autophagy increases or decreases the rate of neuronal death is still under debate. This review summarizes the potential role and possible signaling pathway of autophagy in neuronal survival after cerebral ischemia and proposes that autophagy has dual effects.
  5,410 1,168 73
A novel functional electrical stimulation-control system for restoring motor function of post-stroke hemiplegic patients
Zonghao Huang, Zhigong Wang, Xiaoying Lv, Yuxuan Zhou, Haipeng Wang, Sihao Zong
1st December 2014, 9(23):2102-2110
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.147938  PMID:25657728
Hemiparesis is one of the most common consequences of stroke. Advanced rehabilitation techniques are essential for restoring motor function in hemiplegic patients. Functional electrical stimulation applied to the affected limb based on myoelectric signal from the unaffected limb is a promising therapy for hemiplegia. In this study, we developed a prototype system for evaluating this novel functional electrical stimulation-control strategy. Based on surface electromyography and a vector machine model, a self-administered, multi-movement, force-modulation functional electrical stimulation-prototype system for hemiplegia was implemented. This paper discusses the hardware design, the algorithm of the system, and key points of the self-oscillation-prone system. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the prototype system for further clinical trials, which is being conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed rehabilitation technique.
  5,828 747 5
The p75 neurotrophin receptor: at the crossroad of neural repair and death
Rick B Meeker, Kimberly S Williams
May 2015, 10(5):721-725
DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.156967  PMID:26109945
The strong repair and pro-survival functions of neurotrophins at their primary receptors, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, have made them attractive candidates for treatment of nervous system injury and disease. However, difficulties with the clinical implementation of neurotrophin therapies have prompted the search for treatments that are stable, easier to deliver and allow more precise regulation of neurotrophin actions. Recently, the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 NTR ) has emerged as a potential target for pharmacological control of neurotrophin activity, supported in part by studies demonstrating 1) regulation of neural plasticity in the mature nervous system, 2) promotion of adult neurogenesis and 3) increased expression in neurons, macrophages, microglia, astrocytes and/or Schwann cells in response to injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Although the receptor has no intrinsic catalytic activity it interacts with and modulates the function of TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC, as well as sortilin and the Nogo receptor. This provides substantial cellular and molecular diversity for regulation of neuron survival, neurogenesis, immune responses and processes that support neural function. Upregulation of the p75 NTR under pathological conditions places the receptor in a key position to control numerous processes necessary for nervous system recovery. Support for this possibility has come from recent studies showing that small, non-peptide p75 NTR ligands can selectively modify pro-survival and repair functions. While a great deal remains to be discovered about the wide ranging functions of the p75 NTR , studies summarized in this review highlight the immense potential for development of novel neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapies.
  5,269 1,304 47