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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2 Mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI) repair and axonal regeneration that are induced by cell therapy with autologous bone marrow-derived cells (ABMCs). ABMCs home to and survive at injury site, and induce axonal regeneration and remyelination. Trophic factors, cytokines, exosomes, and microvesicles that are secreted by ABMCs, or mitochondrial transfer induce SCI repair. VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor; FGF-2: fibroblast growth factor-2; HGF: hepatocyte growth factor; IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor 1; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TSG-6: tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein; PGE2: prostaglandin E2; IFNγ: interferon gamma; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha.

Figure 2 Mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI) repair and axonal regeneration that are induced by cell therapy with autologous bone marrow-derived cells (ABMCs). 
ABMCs home to and survive at injury site, and induce axonal regeneration and remyelination. Trophic factors, cytokines, exosomes, and microvesicles that are secreted by ABMCs, or mitochondrial transfer induce SCI repair. VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor; FGF-2: fibroblast growth factor-2; HGF: hepatocyte growth factor; IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor 1; TGF-β: transforming growth factor beta; TSG-6: tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein; PGE2: prostaglandin E2; IFNγ: interferon gamma; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha.