• Users Online: 496
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 1181-1185

Curcumin and Apigenin - novel and promising therapeutics against chronic neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease

1 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown NSW, Australia
2 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown NSW; Molecular Medicine Research Group, University of Western Sydney, NSW, Australia
3 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown NSW; National Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney; Molecular Medicine Research Group, University of Western Sydney, NSW, Australia

Date of Acceptance21-May-2015
Date of Web Publication26-Aug-2015

Correspondence Address:
Gerald Münch
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown NSW; National Institute of Complementary Medicine, University of Western Sydney; Molecular Medicine Research Group, University of Western Sydney, NSW
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.162686

Rights and Permissions

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by deposition of amyloid beta, neurofibrillary tangles, astrogliosis and microgliosis, leading to neuronal dysfunction and loss in the brain. Current treatments for Alzheimer's disease primarily focus on enhancement of cholinergic transmission. However, these treatments are only symptomatic, and no disease-modifying drug is available for Alzheimer's disease patients. This review will provide an overview of the proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, neuroprotective, and cognition-enhancing effects of curcumin and apigenin and discuss the potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease prevention and treatment. We suggest that these compounds might delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease or slow down its progression, and they should enter clinical trials as soon as possible.

Keywords: Alzheimer′s disease; neuroinflammation; anti-inflammatory drugs; plant secondary metabolites; reactive oxygen species

How to cite this article:
Venigalla M, Sonego S, Gyengesi E, Münch G. Curcumin and Apigenin - novel and promising therapeutics against chronic neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Neural Regen Res 2015;10:1181-5

How to cite this URL:
Venigalla M, Sonego S, Gyengesi E, Münch G. Curcumin and Apigenin - novel and promising therapeutics against chronic neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Neural Regen Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Oct 17];10:1181-5. Available from: http://www.nrronline.org/text.asp?2015/10/8/1181/162686

  Alzheimer's disease - a Global Burden Top

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous progressive disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) (Singh and Guthikonda, 1997; Fang et al., 2013). The incidence of AD is about 35 million people worldwide that accounts for 10-15% of people aged 65 or older and 35% of those 85 years and older. With increased expectation of life and aging population, it is estimated that this figure will triple in the next 40 years, resulting in increased health care costs worldwide (Massoud and Gauthier, 2010).

  Low Grade, Chronic Neuroinflammation in AD Top

Neurofibrillary tangles (composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau) and senile plaques (composed of beta-amyloid, Aβ) combined with carbonyl and oxidant stress as well as glucose deficit are the major pathological hallmarks of the disease (Münch et al., 1998). In addition, pro-inflammatory activation of astroglia and microglia has been observed in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and AD (Wong et al., 2001a), and even autism-spectrum and obsessive-compulsive disorders (Qian et al., 2010; Kern et al., 2013). AD is also characterized by a cholinergic deficit, thus current treatments for AD primarily focus on enhancement of cholinergic transmission. However, these treatments are only symptomatic, and no disease-modifying drug is available for AD (Rosenblum, 2014). With failure of so many anti-amyloid trials (Castello et al., 2014), alternative therapeutic interventions are more and more aiming to target other features of the neurodegenerative brain. Consequently, targeting AD-associated neuroinflammation with anti-inflammatory compounds and antioxidants has been suggested as a novel, promising disease-modifying treatment for AD (Wong et al., 2001b; Holmquist et al., 2007; Latta et al., 2014).

The inflammatory response in AD is a double-edged sword. At first, it is a self-defence reaction aimed at eliminating harmful stimuli and restoring tissue integrity. However, neuroinflammation becomes harmful when it turns chronic. Analysis of the time-course of neuroinflammation in AD shows that neuroinflammation (measured as number of activated microglia) starts in patients with mild cognitive impairment peaks in moderately affected cases before it declines in the severe cases (Arends et al., 2000). Increased levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandins and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are also observed in AD at all stages of the disease (Mrak and Griffin, 2005). Activated microglia can be visualized by protein markers such as ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) and translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) (Martin et al., 2010). In one key study, patients with AD, patients with mild cognitive impairment and older control subjects were scanned with the TSPO ligand (11)C-PBR28 ([methyl-(11)C]N-acetyl-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-2-phenoxy-5-pyridinamine). Patients with AD had greater (11)C-PBR28 binding in cortical brain regions than controls, and (11)C-PBR28 binding inversely correlated with the patient's performance on a variety of neuropsychological tests (Kreisl et al., 2013).

Amyloid plaques have been identified as a major source of neuroinflammation in AD. In familial (early-onset) cases of AD, plaque formation is linked to mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) or presenilin (PS1 and PS2) genes, which leads to altered proteolysis of APP producing increased higher levels of longer forms of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) such as Aβ42 (Gotz et al., 2011). In sporadic AD, plaque formation is rather caused by impaired clearance than increased production of Aβ. Clearance of Aβ is suggested to be mediated by its transport across the blood-brain barrier by the receptor for advanced glycation end products and efflux via the multi-ligand lipoprotein receptor LRP-1 and it is suggested that this process is impaired in sporadic AD patients (Bates et al., 2009; Srikanth et al., 2011). In cerebral interstitial fluid, Aβ aggregates to form oligomers and senile plaques, accelerated by crosslinking through advanced glycationend products (AGEs) (Loske et al., 2000). Plaques are associated with microglial activation and reactive astrocytosis and the release of free radicals and cytokines (Eikelenboom and Veerhuis, 1996; Wong et al., 2001a). Their release could cause multifaceted biochemical and structural changes in surrounding axons, dendrites and neuronal cell bodies. Also, the excessive generation of free radicals can cause oxidative damage to proteins and other macromolecules (Retz et al., 1998). Neuroinflammation also leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau by increased kinase or decreased phosphatase activity and might contribute to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (Lee et al., 2010).

Genetic and pharmaco-epidemiological studies also suggest the importance of inflammation in AD pathogenesis. Genome-wide association studies have identified three immune-relevant genes that are associated with an increased risk of developing AD, clusterin (CLU), complement receptor 1 (CR1) and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) (Patel et al., 2014). Furthermore, though non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have an adverse effect in later stages of AD pathogenesis, long-term and pre-symptomatic use of NSAIDs such as naproxen was shown to reduce AD incidence but only after 2 to 3 years (Breitner et al., 2011).

  Neuroinflammation as a Therapeutic Target in AD Top

In recent years, studies have focused on different nutritional approaches to benefit AD patients. More specifically, foods rich in ω-3 fatty acids like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (found abundantly in marine fish), vitamins, and diverse groups of secondary, polyphenolic plant metabolites have been shown to be effective against several AD pathologies (Stevenson and Hurst, 2007; Kamphuis and Scheltens, 2010; Kim et al., 2010; Willis et al., 2010). In the following sections, we will focus on the progress made with some of the most promising plant secondary metabolites such as curcumin and apigenin.

  Curcumin Top


Curcumin, a diarylheptanoid polyphenol isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae, common name: turmeric) is a food additive in Indian cuisine and is used in Ayurvedic medicine (Ringman et al., 2005).


Curcumin penetrates into the CNS and exerts a broad range of anti-inflammatory effects. Considering the low bioavailability of curcumin, various physically redesigned curcumin preparations using nanoparticles, liposomes or inclusion complexes are available in the market (Prasad and Bondy, 2014). Highly bioavailable curcumin preparations, such as "Longvida" (VS Corp) can achieve μM concentrations in the brain (Dadhaniya et al., 2011).


Curcumin administered as standardized powder extract containing a minimum 95% concentrations of three curcuminoids (curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin) has an excellent safety profile with no toxicity being observed in single doses of up to 12 g per day (Lao et al., 2006).

Mechanistic pathways and cellular studies

Curcumin is known to exhibit various pleiotropic properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, lipophilic and cognition/memory enhancing actions, which suggests a potential neuroprotective nature of this compound (Cole et al., 2007; Mishra and Palanivelu, 2008). Furthermore, curcumin has a broad cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory action, it down-regulates the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α, IL-1, -2, -6, -8, and -12 (Abe et al., 1999). Curcumin inhibits IL-6 mediated signalling via inhibition of IL-6 induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and consequent STAT3 nuclear translocation (Bharti et al., 2003), and interferes with the first signalling steps downstream of the IL-6 receptor in microglial activation (Ray and Lahiri, 2009). It also inhibits lipoxygenase (LOX), COX-2 and iNOS expression leading to decreased levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) (Lev-Ari et al., 2006; Menon and Sudheer, 2007). It has an inhibitory effect on TNF-α-induced IL-1, and IL-6 that is most likely mediated through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways (Shi et al., 2015). Curcumin also reduces levels of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the brain, as well as protein oxidation and reversed increases in blood monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) (Giri et al., 2003). Also, curcumin has well-established anti-inflammatory effects in various pathologic conditions in humans including rheumatoid arthritis, gastrointestinal conditions and several forms of cancer (Jurenka, 2009). At last, but not least, curcumin inhibits Aβ40 aggregation and prevents Aβ42 oligomer formation and toxicity (Yang et al., 2005).

Animal studies

In a study by Lim et al. (2001), curcumin was tested for its ability to inhibit the combined inflammatory and oxidative damage in Tg2576 transgenic mice. In this study, Tg2576 mice aged 10 months old were fed a curcumin diet (160 ppm) for 6 months. Their results showed that the curcumin diet significantly lowered the levels of oxidised proteins, IL-1β, GFAP (a marker of activated astroglia), soluble and insoluble Aβ, and also plaque burden. Following this work, Yang et al. (2005) evaluated the effect of feeding a curcumin diet (500 ppm) in 17-month-old Tg2576 mice for 6 months. When fed to the aged Tg2576 mice with advanced amyloid accumulation, curcumin resulted in reduced soluble amyloid levels and plaque burden. Yang et al. (2005) also demonstrated that when curcumin was injected peripherally (via the carotid artery), it could enter the brain and bind amyloid plaques. The ability of curcumin to bind amyloid is thought to be due to its structural similarity to the water-soluble dye Congo red, which is able to stain amyloid plaques. In addition, curcumin has been shown to inhibit Aβ42 oligomer formation as well as, or better than Congo red, without any toxic effects (Yang et al., 2005). These data raise the possibility that dietary supplementation with curcumin may provide a potential preventative treatment for AD, by decreasing Aβ levels and plaque load via inhibition of Aβ oligomer formation and fibrilisation, along with decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation.

Human studies

In humans, "Longvida" curcumin (400 mg) has been shown to significantly improve working memory and mood after 4 weeks of treatment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human trial (Cox et al., 2014).

  Apigenin Top


Apigenin (4′, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid particularly abundant in the ligulate flowers of the chamomile plant (68% apigenin of total flavanoids) (McKay and Blumberg, 2006) and found in lesser concentrations in other sources such as celery, parsley, grapefruit (Shukla and Gupta, 2010).


Apigenin crosses the brain-blood-barrier, and concentrations in rats reached 1.2 μM after daily intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg of apigenin potassium salt (which was solubilized in water and stored frozen until use) for 1 week (Popovic et al., 2014).


Apigenin is considered very safe and even at high doses no toxicity was observed. However, apigenin may induce muscle relaxation and sedation at high doses (Viola et al., 1995; Ross and Kasum, 2002).

Mechanistic pathways and cellular studies

Extensive studies have shown that apigenin has potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties (Panes et al., 1996; Gupta et al., 2001). Apigenin has been shown to have inhibitory effects in vitro on the release of several pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced settings of murine cell lines. Apigenin strongly inhibited levels of IL-6 in mouse macrophages (Smolinski and Pestka, 2003) and suppressed CD40, TFN-α and IL-6 production via inhibition of interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 in murine microglia (Rezai-Zadeh et al., 2008). Evidence of its anti-inflammatory properties is also exemplified in studies that show dose-dependent suppression of the inflammatory mediators NO and prostaglandin, through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 in both microglial and macrophage mouse cells (Liang et al., 1999). Furthermore, apigenin conferred protection against Aβ25-35 -induced toxicity in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (Zhao et al., 2011). In human monocytes and mouse macrophages, apigenin has been shown to attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines by inactivation of NF-κB, mediated by suppression of LPS-induced phosphorylation of the p65 subunit (Nicholas et al., 2007). Other effects reported for apigenin include decreasing expression of adhesion molecules (Panes et al., 1996) and its well-known defensive properties against oxidative stress, such as free radical scavenging and increasing intracellular glutathione concentrations (Myhrstad et al., 2002; Shukla and Gupta, 2010). Apigenin is reported to exert many of its effects through interactions with the signaling molecules in the 3 major MAPK pathways (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38) in both murine and human cell culture models (Yin et al., 1999; Ha et al., 2008).

Animal studies

There are very few studies on apigenin in AD animal models. One recent study by Zhao et al. (2013) tested the neuroprotective effects of apigenin in the APP/PS1 double transgenic AD mouse model. Four month-old mice were orally treated with apigenin (40 mg/kg) for 3 months. Their results showed that apigenin-treated mice displayed improvements in memory and learning deficits, and a reduction of fibrillar amyloid deposits with lowered insoluble Aβ concentrations, mediated by a decrease in β-C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) and β-site AβPP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Additionally, the apigenin-treated mice showed restoration of the cortical ERK/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway involved in learning and memory typically affected in AD pathology. Enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were also observed and increased superoxide anion scavenging (Zhao et al., 2013). Similarly, in another study, Aβ25-35 -induced amnesia mouse models were treated with apigenin (20 mg/kg), resulting in improvements in spatial learning and memory, in addition to neurovascular protective effects (Liu et al., 2011). Other in vivo studies with non-AD-related animal models report significant reductions in LPS-induced IL-6 and TFN-α production in apigenin pre-treated mice (50 mg/kg) (Smolinski and Pestka, 2003). Another study indicated neuroprotective effects in apigenin pre-treated mice (10-20 mg/kg) subjected to contusive spinal cord injury, including reduction in IL-1β, TFN-α, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3, with an increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio (Zhang et al., 2014).

Human studies

Based on the published literature, no studies in humans have been conducted with apigenin with respect to inflammation or cognitive performance.

  Conclusion Top

Based on the results emerging from cell culture, animal and human studies, we conclude that both curcumin and apigenin are exceptional candidates for an anti-inflammatory therapy against AD and other related degenerative disorders, ready to enter clinical trials within a short time frame.[64]

  References Top

Abe Y, Hashimoto S, Horie T (1999) Curcumin inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Pharmacol Res 39:41-47.  Back to cited text no. 1
Arends YM, Duyckaerts C, Rozemuller JM, Eikelenboom P, Hauw JJ (2000) Microglia, amyloid and dementia in alzheimer disease. A correlative study. Neurobiol Aging 21:39-47.  Back to cited text no. 2
Bates KA, Verdile G, Li QX, Ames D, Hudson P, Masters CL, Martins RN (2009) Clearance mechanisms of Alzheimer′s amyloid-beta peptide: implications for therapeutic design and diagnostic tests. Mol Psychiatry 14:469-486.  Back to cited text no. 3
Bharti AC, Donato N, Aggarwal BB (2003) Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 phosphorylation in human multiple myeloma cells. J Immunol 171:3863-3871.  Back to cited text no. 4
Breitner JC, Baker LD, Montine TJ, Meinert CL, Lyketsos CG, Ashe KH, Brandt J, Craft S, Evans DE, Green RC, Ismail MS, Martin BK, Mullan MJ, Sabbagh M, Tariot PN, Group AR (2011) Extended results of the Alzheimer′s disease anti-inflammatory prevention trial. Alzheimer′s Dement 7:402-411.  Back to cited text no. 5
Castello MA, Jeppson JD, Soriano S (2014) Moving beyond anti-amyloid therapy for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer′s disease. BMC Neurol 14:169.  Back to cited text no. 6
Cole GM, Teter B, Frautschy SA (2007) Neuroprotective effects of curcumin. Adv Exp Med Biol 595:197-212.  Back to cited text no. 7
Cox KH, Pipingas A, Scholey AB (2014) Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population. J Psychopharmacol pii: 0269881114552744.  Back to cited text no. 8
Dadhaniya P, Patel C, Muchhara J, Bhadja N, Mathuria N, Vachhani K, Soni MG (2011) Safety assessment of a solid lipid curcumin particle preparation: acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Food Chem Toxicol 49:1834-1842.  Back to cited text no. 9
Eikelenboom P, Veerhuis R (1996) The role of complement and activated microglia in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer′s disease. Neurobiol Aging 17:673-680.  Back to cited text no. 10
Fang L, Gou S, Fang X, Cheng L, Fleck C (2013) Current progresses of novel natural products and their derivatives/ analogs as anti-Alzheimer candidates: an update. Mini Rev Med Chem 13:870-887.  Back to cited text no. 11
Giri RK, Selvaraj SK, Kalra VK (2003) Amyloid peptide-induced cytokine and chemokine expression in THP-1 monocytes is blocked by small inhibitory RNA duplexes for early growth response-1 messenger RNA. J Immunol 170:5281-5294.  Back to cited text no. 12
Gotz J, Eckert A, Matamales M, Ittner LM, Liu X (2011) Modes of Abeta toxicity in Alzheimer′s disease. Cell Mol Life Sci 68:3359-3375.  Back to cited text no. 13
Gupta S, Afaq F, Mukhtar H (2001) Selective growth-inhibitory, cell-cycle deregulatory and apoptotic response of apigenin in normal versus human prostate carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:914-920.  Back to cited text no. 14
Ha SK, Lee P, Park JA, Oh HR, Lee SY, Park JH, Lee EH, Ryu JH, Lee KR, Kim SY (2008) Apigenin inhibits the production of NO and PGE2 in microglia and inhibits neuronal cell death in a middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal ischemia mice model. Neurochem Int 52:878-886.  Back to cited text no. 15
Holmquist L, Stuchbury G, Berbaum K, Muscat S, Young S, Hager K, Engel J, Münch G (2007) Lipoic acid as a novel treatment for Alzheimer′s disease and related dementias. Pharmacol Ther 113:154-164.  Back to cited text no. 16
Jurenka JS (2009) Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Altern Med Rev 14:141-153.  Back to cited text no. 17
Kamphuis PJ, Scheltens P (2010) Can nutrients prevent or delay onset of Alzheimer′s disease? J Alzheimers Dis 20:765-775.  Back to cited text no. 18
Kern JK, Geier DA, Sykes LK, Geier MR (2013) Evidence of neurodegeneration in autism spectrum disorder. Transl Neurodegener 2:17.  Back to cited text no. 19
Kim J, Lee HJ, Lee KW (2010) Naturally occurring phytochemicals for the prevention of Alzheimer′s disease. J Neurochem 112:1415-1430.  Back to cited text no. 20
Kreisl WC, Lyoo CH, McGwier M, Snow J, Jenko KJ, Kimura N, Corona W, Morse CL, Zoghbi SS, Pike VW, McMahon FJ, Turner RS, Innis RB (2013) In vivo radioligand binding to translocator protein correlates with severity of Alzheimer′s disease. Brain 136:2228-2238.  Back to cited text no. 21
Lao CD, Ruffin MTt, Normolle D, Heath DD, Murray SI, Bailey JM, Boggs ME, Crowell J, Rock CL, Brenner DE (2006) Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation. BMC Complement Altern Med 6:10.  Back to cited text no. 22
Latta CH, Brothers HM, Wilcock DM (2014) Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer′s disease; A source of heterogeneity and target for personalized therapy. Neuroscience doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.09.061.  Back to cited text no. 23
Lee DC, Rizer J, Selenica ML, Reid P, Kraft C, Johnson A, Blair L, Gordon MN, Dickey CA, Morgan D (2010) LPS- induced inflammation exacerbates phospho-tau pathology in rTg4510 mice. J Neuroinflammation 7:56.  Back to cited text no. 24
Lev-Ari S, Maimon Y, Strier L, Kazanov D, Arber N (2006) Down-regulation of prostaglandin E2 by curcumin is correlated with inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cell lines. J Soc Integr Oncol 4:21-26.  Back to cited text no. 25
Liang YC, Huang YT, Tsai SH, Lin-Shiau SY, Chen CF, Lin JK (1999) Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase by apigenin and related flavonoids in mouse macrophages. Carcinogenesis 20:1945-1952.  Back to cited text no. 26
Lim GP, Chu T, Yang F, Beech W, Frautschy SA, Cole GM (2001) The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci 21:8370-8377.  Back to cited text no. 27
Liu R, Zhang T, Yang H, Lan X, Ying J, Du G (2011) The flavonoid apigenin protects brain neurovascular coupling against amyloid-beta(2)(5)(-)(3)(5)-induced toxicity in mice. J Alzheimers Dis 24:85-100.  Back to cited text no. 28
Loske C, Gerdemann A, Schepl W, Wycislo M, Schinzel R, Palm D, Riederer P, Münch G (2000) Transition metal-mediated glycoxidation accelerates cross-linking of beta-amyloid peptide. Eur J Biochem 267:4171-4178.  Back to cited text no. 29
Martin A, Boisgard R, Theze B, Van Camp N, Kuhnast B, Damont A, Kassiou M, Dolle F, Tavitian B (2010) Evaluation of the PBR/TSPO radioligand [(18)F]DPA-714 in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30:230-241.  Back to cited text no. 30
Massoud F, Gauthier S (2010) Update on the pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer′s disease. Curr Neuropharmacol 8:69-80.  Back to cited text no. 31
McKay DL, Blumberg JB (2006) A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.). Phytother Res 20:519-530.  Back to cited text no. 32
Menon VP, Sudheer AR (2007) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. Adv Exp Med Biol 595:105-125.  Back to cited text no. 33
Mishra S, Palanivelu K (2008) The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer′s disease: An overview. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 11:13-19.  Back to cited text no. 34
Mrak RE, Griffin WS (2005) Glia and their cytokines in progression of neurodegeneration. Neurobiol Aging 26:349-354.  Back to cited text no. 35
Münch G, Schinzel R, Loske C, Wong A, Durany N, Li JJ, Vlassara H, Smith MA, Perry G, Riederer P (1998) Alzheimer′s disease--synergistic effects of glucose deficit, oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. J Neural Transm 105:439-461.  Back to cited text no. 36
Myhrstad MC, Carlsen H, Nordstrom O, Blomhoff R, Moskaug JO (2002) Flavonoids increase the intracellular glutathione level by transactivation of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase catalytical subunit promoter. Free Radic Biol Med 32:386-393.  Back to cited text no. 37
Nicholas C, Batra S, Vargo MA, Voss OH, Gavrilin MA, Wewers MD, Guttridge DC, Grotewold E, Doseff AI (2007) Apigenin blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality in vivo and proinflammatory cytokines expression by inactivating NF-kappaB through the suppression of p65 phosphorylation. J Immunol 179:7121-7127.  Back to cited text no. 38
Panes J, Gerritsen ME, Anderson DC, Miyasaka M, Granger DN (1996) Apigenin inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 upregulation in vivo. Microcirculation 3:279-286.  Back to cited text no. 39
Patel A, Rees SD, Kelly MA, Bain SC, Barnett AH, Prasher A, Arshad H, Prasher VP (2014) Genetic variants conferring susceptibility to Alzheimer′s disease in the general population; do they also predispose to dementia in Down′s syndrome. BMC Res Notes 7:42.  Back to cited text no. 40
Popovic M, Caballero-Bleda M, Benavente-Garcia O, Castillo J (2014) The flavonoid apigenin delays forgetting of passive avoidance conditioning in rats. J Psychopharmacol 28:498-501.  Back to cited text no. 41
Prasad KN, Bondy SC (2014) Inhibition of early upstream events in prodromal Alzheimer′s disease by use of targeted antioxidants. Curr Aging Sci 7:77-90.  Back to cited text no. 42
Qian L, Flood PM, Hong JS (2010) Neuroinflammation is a key player in Parkinson′s disease and a prime target for therapy. J Neural Transm 117:971-979.  Back to cited text no. 43
Ray B, Lahiri DK (2009) Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer′s disease: different molecular targets and potential therapeutic agents including curcumin. Curr Opin Pharmacol 9:434-444.  Back to cited text no. 44
Retz W, Gsell W, Münch G, Rosler M, Riederer P (1998) Free radicals in Alzheimer′s disease. J Neural Transm Suppl 54:221-236.  Back to cited text no. 45
Rezai-Zadeh K, Ehrhart J, Bai Y, Sanberg PR, Bickford P, Tan J, Douglas RD (2008) Apigenin and luteolin modulate microglial activation via inhibition of STAT1-induced CD40 expression. J Neuroinflammation 5:41.  Back to cited text no. 46
Ringman JM, Frautschy SA, Cole GM, Masterman DL, Cummings JL (2005) A potential role of the curry spice curcumin in Alzheimer′s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 2:131-136.  Back to cited text no. 47
Rosenblum WI (2014) Why Alzheimer trials fail: removing soluble oligomeric beta amyloid is essential, inconsistent, and difficult. Neurobiol Aging 35:969-974.  Back to cited text no. 48
Ross JA, Kasum CM (2002) Dietary flavonoids: bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety. Annu Rev Nutr 22:19-34.  Back to cited text no. 49
Shi X, Zheng Z, Li J, Xiao Z, Qi W, Zhang A, Wu Q, Fang Y (2015) Curcumin inhibits Abeta-induced microglial inflammatory responses in vitro: Involvement of ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways. Neurosci Lett 594:105-110.  Back to cited text no. 50
Shukla S, Gupta S (2010) Apigenin: a promising molecule for cancer prevention. Pharm Res 27:962-978.  Back to cited text no. 51
Singh VK, Guthikonda P (1997) Circulating cytokines in Alzheimer′s disease. J Psychiatr Res 31:657-660.  Back to cited text no. 52
Smolinski AT, Pestka JJ (2003) Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in vitro and in vivo by the herbal constituents apigenin (chamomile), ginsenoside Rb(1) (ginseng) and parthenolide (feverfew). Food Chem Toxicol 41:1381-1390.  Back to cited text no. 53
Srikanth V, Maczurek A, Phan T, Steele M, Westcott B, Juskiw D, Münch G (2011) Advanced glycation endproducts and their receptor RAGE in Alzheimer′s disease. Neurobiol Aging 32:763-777.  Back to cited text no. 54
Stevenson DE, Hurst RD (2007) Polyphenolic phytochemicals--just antioxidants or much more? Cell Mol Life Sci 64:2900-2916.  Back to cited text no. 55
Viola H, Wasowski C, Levi de Stein M, Wolfman C, Silveira R, Dajas F, Medina JH, Paladini AC (1995) Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects. Planta Med 61:213-216.  Back to cited text no. 56
Willis LM, Freeman L, Bickford PC, Quintero EM, Umphlet CD, Moore AB, Goetzl L, Granholm AC (2010) Blueberry supplementation attenuates microglial activation in hippocampal intraocular grafts to aged hosts. Glia 58:679-690.  Back to cited text no. 57
Wong A, Luth HJ, Deuther-Conrad W, Dukic-Stefanovic S, Gasic-Milenkovic J, Arendt T, Münch G (2001a) Advanced glycation endproducts co-localize with inducible nitric oxide synthase in Alzheimer′s disease. Brain Res 920:32-40.  Back to cited text no. 58
Wong A, Dukic-Stefanovic S, Gasic-Milenkovic J, Schinzel R, Wiesinger H, Riederer P, Münch G (2001b) Anti-inflammatory antioxidants attenuate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mediated by advanced glycation endproducts in murine microglia. Eur J Neurosci 14:1961-1967.  Back to cited text no. 59
Yang F, Lim GP, Begum AN, Ubeda OJ, Simmons MR, Ambegaokar SS, Chen PP, Kayed R, Glabe CG, Frautschy SA, Cole GM (2005) Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo. J Biol Chem 280:5892-5901.  Back to cited text no. 60
Yin F, Giuliano AE, Van Herle AJ (1999) Signal pathways involved in apigenin inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis of human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells (ARO). Anticancer Res 19:4297-4303.  Back to cited text no. 61
Zhang F, Li F, Chen G (2014) Neuroprotective effect of apigenin in rats after contusive spinal cord injury. Neurol Sci 35:583-588.  Back to cited text no. 62
Zhao L, Wang JL, Liu R, Li XX, Li JF, Zhang L (2013) Neuroprotective, anti-amyloidogenic and neurotrophic effects of apigenin in an Alzheimer′s disease mouse model. Molecules 18:9949-9965.  Back to cited text no. 63
Zhao M, Ma J, Zhu HY, Zhang XH, Du ZY, Xu YJ, Yu XD (2011) Apigenin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells through targeting the trinity of CK2, Cdc37 and Hsp90. Mol Cancer 10:104.  Back to cited text no. 64

This article has been cited by
1 Cyclodextrins, Natural Compounds, and Plant Bioactives—A Nutritional Perspective
Svenja Wüpper,Kai Lüersen,Gerald Rimbach
Biomolecules. 2021; 11(3): 401
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Molecular targets for the management of cancer using Curcuma longa Linn. phytoconstituents: A Review
Sabira Sultana,Naveed Munir,Zahed Mahmood,Muhammad Riaz,Muhammad Akram,Maksim Rebezov,Nazira Kuderinova,Zhanar Moldabayeva,Mohammad Ali Shariati,Abdur Rauf,Kannan R.R. Rengasamy
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2021; 135: 111078
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Inhibition of CD38 and supplementation of nicotinamide riboside ameliorate lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial and astrocytic neuroinflammation by increasing NAD +
Jureepon Roboon,Tsuyoshi Hattori,Hiroshi Ishii,Mika Takarada-Iemata,Dinh Thi Nguyen,Collin D. Heer,Denis OæMeally,Charles Brenner,Yasuhiko Yamamoto,Hiroshi Okamoto,Haruhiro Higashida,Osamu Hori
Journal of Neurochemistry. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Therapeutic Opportunities for Food Supplements in Neurodegenerative Disease and Depression
Rita Businaro,David Vauzour,Jerome Sarris,Gerald Münch,Erika Gyengesi,Laura Brogelli,Pedro Zuzarte
Frontiers in Nutrition. 2021; 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Systematically designed chitosan-coated solid lipid nanoparticles of ferulic acid for effective management of Alzheimer’s disease: A preclinical evidence
Sumant Saini,Teenu Sharma,Atul Jain,Harmanjot Kaur,O.P. Katare,Bhupinder Singh Bhoop
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2021; : 111838
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Apigenin Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuronal Damage in Mice
Yeojin Kim,Jihyun Kim,Meitong He,Ahyoung Lee,Eunju Cho
Molecules. 2021; 26(17): 5192
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Activity of Apigenin in Animal Experimental Models
Syed Mohammed Basheerudd,Basheerahmed Abdulaziz,Ahmad Alanazi,Bader Almusharra,Naif Alanazi,Khalid Saad,Sami Alanazi,Khalid Abduallah,Saad Alrashid,Faisal Alanazi,Abdulhakeem S. Alamri,Walaa F. Alsanie,Majid Alhomrani
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2021; 17(6): 400
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 GSK-3ß as a target for apigenin-induced neuroprotection against Aß 25–35 in a rat model of Alzheimeræs disease
Alireza Moein Alsadat,Farnaz Nikbakht,Hadiseh Hossein Nia,Fereshteh Golab,Yasaman Khadem,Mahmoud Barati,Somayeh Vazifekhah
Neuropeptides. 2021; 90: 102200
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Specific, sensitive and rapid Curcuma longa turmeric powder authentication in commercial food using loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification
Shyang-Chwen Sheu,Yi-Cheng Wu,Yi-Yang Lien,Meng-Shiou Lee
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Identification of tetragocarbone C and sideroxylin as the most potent anti-inflammatory components of Syncarpia glomulifera
Madhuri Venigalla,Tara Laurine Roberts,Ritesh Raju,Melissa Mrad,Frances Bodkin,Katja Kopp,Kerrie Doyle,Gerald Münch
Fitoterapia. 2021; 150: 104843
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Mediterranean Diet and Neurodegenerative Diseases: The Neglected Role of Nutrition in the Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System
Federica Armeli,Alessio Bonucci,Elisa Maggi,Alessandro Pinto,Rita Businaro
Biomolecules. 2021; 11(6): 790
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Apigenin as a Candidate Prenatal Treatment for Trisomy 21: Effects in Human Amniocytes and the Ts1Cje Mouse Model
Faycal Guedj,Ashley E. Siegel,Jeroen L.A. Pennings,Fatimah Alsebaa,Lauren J. Massingham,Umadevi Tantravahi,Diana W. Bianchi
The American Journal of Human Genetics. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Current Perspectives of the Applications of Polyphenols and Flavonoids in Cancer Therapy
Xavier Montané,Oliwia Kowalczyk,Belen Reig-Vano,Anna Bajek,Krzysztof Roszkowski,Remigiusz Tomczyk,Wojciech Pawliszak,Marta Giamberini,Agnieszka Mocek-Plóciniak,Bartosz Tylkowski
Molecules. 2020; 25(15): 3342
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Flavonoids and Related Members of the Aromatic Polyketide Group in Human Health and Disease: Do They Really Work?
Jan Tauchen,Lukáš Huml,Silvie Rimpelova,Michal Jurášek
Molecules. 2020; 25(17): 3846
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Therapeutic potential of glutathione-enhancers in stress-related psychopathologies
Ioannis Zalachoras,Fiona Hollis,Eva Ramos-Fernández,Laura Trovo,Sarah Sonnay,Eveline Geiser,Nicolas Preitner,Pascal Steiner,Carmen Sandi,Laia Morató
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2020; 114: 134
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Natural compounds as inhibitors of transthyretin amyloidosis and neuroprotective agents: analysis of structural data for future drug design
Lidia Ciccone,Nicoló Tonali,Susanna Nencetti,Elisabetta Orlandini
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2020; 35(1): 1145
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Luteolin and Apigenin Attenuate LPS-Induced Astrocyte Activation and Cytokine Production by Targeting MAPK, STAT3, and NF-?B Signaling Pathways
Denis Nchang Che,Byoung Ok Cho,Ji-su Kim,Jae Young Shin,Hyun Ju Kang,Seon Il Jang
Inflammation. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Polyphenols as Caloric-Restriction Mimetics and Autophagy Inducers in Aging Research
Assylzhan Yessenkyzy,Timur Saliev,Marina Zhanaliyeva,Abdul-Razak Masoud,Bauyrzhan Umbayev,Shynggys Sergazy,Elena Krivykh,Alexander Gulyayev,Talgat Nurgozhin
Nutrients. 2020; 12(5): 1344
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Apigenin protects against ischemia-/hypoxia-induced myocardial injury by mediating pyroptosis and apoptosis
Wei Li,Lin Chen,Yingbin Xiao
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Biocatalytic green alternative to existing hazardous reaction media: synthesis of chalcone and flavone derivatives via the Claisen–Schmidt reaction at room temperature
Kashyap J. Tamuli,Ranjan K. Sahoo,Manobjyoti Bordoloi
New Journal of Chemistry. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 The Role of Selected Bioactive Compounds in the Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease
Wojciech Grodzicki,Katarzyna Dziendzikowska
Antioxidants. 2020; 9(3): 229
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Apigenin Prevents Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury by Activating the SIRT1 Pathway
Licong Zhao,Jiaqi Zhang,Cheng Hu,Tao Wang,Juan Lu,Chenqu Wu,Long Chen,Mingming Jin,Guang Ji,Qin Cao,Yuanye Jiang
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2020; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Apigenin Modulates Dendritic Cell Activities and Curbs Inflammation Via RelB Inhibition in the Context of Neuroinflammatory Diseases
Rashida Ginwala,Raina Bhavsar,Patrick Moore,Mariana Bernui,Narendra Singh,Frank Bearoff,Mitzi Nagarkatti,Zafar K. Khan,Pooja Jain
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Cannabis-like activity of Zornia latifolia Sm. detected in vitro on rat cortical neurons: major role of the flavone syzalterin
Susanna Alloisio,Marco Clericuzio,Mario Nobile,Annalisa Salis,Gianluca Damonte,Claudia Canali,Ana Paula Fortuna-Perez,Laura Cornara,Bruno Burlando
Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 A Comprehensive Assessment of Apigenin as an Antiproliferative, Proapoptotic, Antiangiogenic and Immunomodulatory Phytocompound
Alexandra Ghi?u,Anja Schwiebs,Heinfried H. Radeke,Stefana Avram,Istvan Zupko,Andrea Bor,Ioana Zinuca Pavel,Cristina Adriana Dehelean,Camelia Oprean,Florina Bojin,Claudia Farcas,Codruta Soica,Oana Duicu,Corina Danciu
Nutrients. 2019; 11(4): 858
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Neuroprotective Effects of Curcumin on IL-1ß-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis and Depression-Like Behaviors Caused by Chronic Stress in Rats
Cuiqin Fan,Qiqi Song,Peng Wang,Ye Li,Mu Yang,Shu Yan Yu
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 2019; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Potential Role of Flavonoids in Treating Chronic Inflammatory Diseases with a Special Focus on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Apigenin
Rashida Ginwala,Raina Bhavsar,DeGaulle I. Chigbu,Pooja Jain,Zafar K. Khan
Antioxidants. 2019; 8(2): 35
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Targeting Inflammatory Pathways in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Focus on Natural Products and Phytomedicines
Matthew J. Sharman,Giuseppe Verdile,Shanmugam Kirubakaran,Cristina Parenti,Ahilya Singh,Georgina Watt,Tim Karl,Dennis Chang,Chun Guang Li,Gerald Münch
CNS Drugs. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Assessment of diets containing curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, docosahexaenoic acid and a-lipoic acid on amyloid load and inflammation in a male transgenic mouse model of Alzheimeræs disease: Are combinations more effective?
Matthew J. Sharman,Erika Gyengesi,Huazheng Liang,Pratishtha Chatterjee,Tim Karl,Qiao-Xin Li,Markus R. Wenk,Barry Halliwell,Ralph N. Martins,Gerald Münch
Neurobiology of Disease. 2019; 124: 505
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Dietary Supplementation of the Antioxidant Curcumin Halts Systemic LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation-Associated Neurodegeneration and Memory/Synaptic Impairment via the JNK/NF-?B/Akt Signaling Pathway in Adult Rats
Muhammad Sohail Khan,Tahir Muhammad,Muhammad Ikram,Myeong Ok Kim
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2019; 2019: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Apigenin attenuates acrylonitrile-induced neuro-inflammation in rats: Involved of inactivation of the TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway
Fenxian Zhao,Yuhui Dang,Ruiping Zhang,Guangzhuang Jing,Weitao Liang,Liæao Xie,Zhilan Li
International Immunopharmacology. 2019; 75: 105697
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 A combination of curcumin, vorinostat and silibinin reverses Aß-induced nerve cell toxicity via activation of AKT-MDM2-p53 pathway
Jia Meng,Yan Li,Mingming Zhang,Wenjing Li,Lin Zhou,Qiujun Wang,Lin Lin,Lihong Jiang,Wenliang Zhu
PeerJ. 2019; 7: e6716
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Apigenin Inhibits IL-31 Cytokine in Human Mast Cell and Mouse Skin Tissues
Denis Nchang Che,Byoung Ok Cho,Jae Young Shin,Hyun Ju Kang,Ji-Su Kim,Hyeonhwa Oh,Young-Soo Kim,Seon Il Jang
Molecules. 2019; 24(7): 1290
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Could Flavonoids Compete with Synthetic Azoles in Diminishing Candida albicans Infections? A Comparative Review Based on In Vitro Studies
Marija Smiljkovic,Marina Kostic,Dejan Stojkovic,Jasmina Glamoclija,Marina Sokovic
Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2019; 26(14): 2536
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Molecular Mechanisms of Curcumin in Neuroinflammatory Disorders: A Mini Review of Current Evidences
Mahsa Hatami,Mina Abdolahi,Neda Soveyd,Mahmoud Djalali,Mansoureh Togha,Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar
Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets. 2019; 19(3): 247
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of an Apigenin-Maillard Reaction Product in Macrophages and Macrophage-Endothelial Cocultures
Qian Zhou,Hui Xu,Wenzhe Yu,Edmund Li,Mingfu Wang
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2019; 2019: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Characterization of Interaction Between Curcumin and Different Types of Lipid Bilayers by Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Yuan Lyu,Ning Xiang,Jagannath Mondal,Xiao Zhu,Ganesan Narsimhan
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Traversal of the Blood–Brain Barrier by Cleavable l-Lysine Conjugates of Apigenin
Tsung-Yun Wong,Ming-Shian Tsai,Lih-Ching Hsu,Shu-Wha Lin,Pi-Hui Liang
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 The interactions of p53 with tau and Aß represent potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer’s disease
Maja Jazvinšcak Jembrek,Neda Slade,Patrick R. Hof,Goran Šimic
Progress in Neurobiology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Regulatory Roles of Flavonoids on Inflammasome Activation during Inflammatory Responses
Young-Su Yi
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2018; : 1800147
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Dietary polyphenols: A novel strategy to modulate microbiota-gut-brain axis
Diana Serra,Leonor M. Almeida,Teresa C.P. Dinis
Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2018; 78: 224
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 A Computational Systems Pharmacology Approach to Investigate Molecular Mechanisms of Herbal Formula Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin for Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
Tianduanyi Wang,Zengrui Wu,Lixia Sun,Weihua Li,Guixia Liu,Yun Tang
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2018; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Inhibition of Protein Aggregation by Several Antioxidants
Samra Hasanbašic,Alma Jahic,Selma Berbic,Magda Tušek Žnidaric,Eva Žerovnik
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2018; 2018: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Comprehensive review of mechanisms of pathogenesis involved in Alzheimer’s disease and potential therapeutic strategies
Piyoosh Sharma,Pavan Srivastava,Ankit Seth,Prabhash Nath Tripathi,Anupam G. Banerjee,Sushant K. Shrivastava
Progress in Neurobiology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 The significant impact of apigenin on different aspects of autoimmune disease
Neda Kasiri,Mahshid Rahmati,leila Ahmadi,Nahid Eskandari
Inflammopharmacology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Ethyl oleate food-grade O/W emulsions loaded with apigenin: Insights to their formulation characteristics and physico-chemical stability
Imen Abcha,Safa Souilem,Marcos A. Neves,Zheng Wang,Mohamed Nefatti,Hiroko Isoda,Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Food Research International. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Use of Curcumin, a Natural Polyphenol for Targeting Molecular Pathways in Treating Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases
Panchanan Maiti,Gary Dunbar
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(6): 1637
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Apigenin inhibits growth of the Plasmodium berghei and disrupts some metabolic pathways in mice
Mahdi Amiri,Abbasali Nourian,Maryam Khoshkam,Ali Ramazani
Phytotherapy Research. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Apigenin reverses behavioural impairments and cognitive decline in kindled mice via CREB-BDNF upregulation in the hippocampus
Pallavi Sharma,Supriya Sharma,Damanpreet Singh
Nutritional Neuroscience. 2018; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Bioavailability enhancement of hydrophobic nutraceuticals using ?-cyclodextrin
Yukiko Uekaji,Keiji Terao
Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Curcumin Ameliorates Memory Deficits by Enhancing Lactate Content and MCT2 Expression in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimeræs Disease
Wei-Tian Lu,Shan-Quan Sun,Yu Li,Shi-Ye Xu,Sheng-Wei Gan,Jin Xu,Guo-Ping Qiu,Fei Zhuo,Si-Qin Huang,Xu-Li Jiang,Juan Huang
The Anatomical Record. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Investigation Into the Effects of Tenilsetam on Markers of Neuroinflammation in GFAP-IL6 Mice
Erika Gyengesi,Huazheng Liang,Christopher Millington,Sandra Sonego,Daniel Sirijovski,Dhanushka Gunawardena,Karthik Dhananjayan,Madhuri Venigalla,Garry Niedermayer,Gerald Münch
Pharmaceutical Research. 2018; 35(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Combined in Vitro Cell-Based/in Silico Screening of Naturally Occurring Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds as Potential Anti-Alzheimer Drugs
Alba Espargaró,Tiziana Ginex,Maria del Mar Vadell,Maria A. Busquets,Joan Estelrich,Diego Muñoz-Torrero,F. Javier Luque,Raimon Sabate
Journal of Natural Products. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Humulus japonicus Prevents Dopaminergic Neuron Death in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Models of Parkinsonæs Disease
Young-Kyoung Ryu,Young Kang,Jun Go,Hye-Yeon Park,Jung-Ran Noh,Yong-Hoon Kim,Jung Hwan Hwang,Dong-Hee Choi,Sang-Seop Han,Won-Keun Oh,Chul-Ho Lee,Kyoung-Shim Kim
Journal of Medicinal Food. 2017; 20(2): 116
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Apigenin in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and protection of blood vessels
Kun Zhang,Wei Song,Dalin Li,Xing Jin
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2017; 13(5): 1719
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Evidence based traditional anti-diarrheal medicinal plants and their phytocompounds
Pooja Rawat,Pawan Kumar Singh,Vipin Kumar
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2017; 96: 1453
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Poly-N-methylated Aß-Peptide C-Terminal fragments (MEPTIDES) reverse the deleterious effects of amyloid-ß in rats
Siya G. Sibiya,Musa V. Mbandla,Thavi Govender,Adeola Shobo,William M. U. Daniels
Metabolic Brain Disease. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Apigenin as Neuroprotective Agent: of mice and men
Seyed Fazel Nabavi,Haroon Khan,Grazia Dæonofrio,Dunja Šamec,Samira Shirooie,Ahmad Reza Dehpour,Sandro Argüelles Castilla,Solomon Habtemariam,Eduardo Sobarzo-Sanchez
Pharmacological Research. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Apigenin Alleviates Endotoxin-Induced Myocardial Toxicity by Modulating Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Autophagy
Fang Li,Fangfang Lang,Huilin Zhang,Liangdong Xu,Yidan Wang,Chunxiao Zhai,Enkui Hao
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2017; 2017: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of a combined extract of sage, rosemary and melissa, traditional herbal medicines, on the enhancement of memory in normal healthy subjects, including influence of age
N.S.L. Perry,R. Menzies,F. Hodgson,P. Wedgewood,M.-J.R. Howes,H.J. Brooker,K.A. Wesnes,E.K. Perry
Phytomedicine. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Effects of nutrient and bioactive food components on Alzheimeræs disease and epigenetic
ElIf CelIk,NevIn SanlIer
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2017; : 00
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Apigenin enhances skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation by regulating Prmt7
Young Jin Jang,Hyo Jeong Son,Yong Min Choi,Jiyun Ahn,Chang Hwa Jung,Tae Youl Ha
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(45): 78300
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 In vitro antiinflammatory and antioxidant potential of root extracts from Ranunculaceae species
J. Malik,J. Tauchen,P. Landa,Z. Kutil,P. Marsik,P. Kloucek,J. Havlik,L. Kokoska
South African Journal of Botany. 2017; 109: 128
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Protective effects of Bushen Tiansui decoction on hippocampal synapses in a rat model of Alzheimeræs disease
Shan Hui,Yu Yang,Wei-jun Peng,Chen-xia Sheng,Wei Gong,Shuai Chen,Pan-pan Xu,Zhe Wang
Neural Regeneration Research. 2017; 12(10): 1680
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 A highly selective and sensitive fluorescence sensor for the detection of apigenin based on nitrogen doped carbon dots and its application in cell imaging
Jing Li,Jinping Song,Xiaomin Liang,Qi Ma,Lazhen Shen,Yong Guo,Feng Feng
Analytical Methods. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 Polyphenols, autophagy and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity
S. Shabalala,C.J.F. Muller,J. Louw,R. Johnson
Life Sciences. 2017; 180: 160
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Apigenin Attenuates Adriamycin-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway
Wei Yu,Huirong Sun,Wenliang Zha,Weili Cui,Ling Xu,Qing Min,Jiliang Wu
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017; 2017: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Apigeninæs anticancer properties and molecular mechanisms of action: Recent advances and future prospectives
Jumah Masoud Mohammad SALMANI,Xiao-Ping ZHANG,Joe Antony JACOB,Bao-An CHEN
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 2017; 15(5): 321
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Taste and smell in aquatic and terrestrial environments
E. Mollo,M. J. Garson,G. Polese,P. Amodeo,M. T. Ghiselin
Nat. Prod. Rep.. 2017; 34(5): 496
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Analysis of different innovative formulations of curcumin for improved relative oral bioavailability in human subjects
Martin Purpura,Ryan P. Lowery,Jacob M. Wilson,Haider Mannan,Gerald Münch,Valentina Razmovski-Naumovski
European Journal of Nutrition. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Turmeric, Naturally Available Colorimetric Receptor for Quantitative Detection of Fluoride and Iron
Mahesh P. Bhat,Mahesh P. Madhuprasad,Pravin Patil,S.K. Nataraj,Tariq Altalhi,Ho-Young Jung,Dusan Losic,Mahaveer D. Kurkuri
Chemical Engineering Journal. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Pathway Analysis Revealed Potential Diverse Health Impacts of Flavonoids that Bind Estrogen Receptors
Hao Ye,Hui Ng,Sugunadevi Sakkiah,Weigong Ge,Roger Perkins,Weida Tong,Huixiao Hong
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(4): 373
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Apigetrin from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Inhibits Neuroinflammation in BV-2 Microglia and Exerts Neuroprotective Effect in HT22 Hippocampal Cells
Hye-Sun Lim,Ohn-Soon Kim,Bu-Yeo Kim,Soo-Jin Jeong
Journal of Medicinal Food. 2016; 19(11): 1032
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Medicinal Plants of the Australian Aboriginal Dharawal People Exhibiting Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Most A. Akhtar,Ritesh Raju,Karren D. Beattie,Frances Bodkin,Gerald Münch
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016; 2016: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 Curcumin in depressive disorders: An overview of potential mechanisms, preclinical and clinical findings
Fernanda Neutzling Kaufmann,Marta Gazal,Clarissa Ribeiro Bastos,Manuella Pinto Kaster,Gabriele Ghisleni
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2016; 784: 192
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Alzheimer's dise...
Low Grade, Chron...

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1477    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 75    

Recommend this journal