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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 12  |  Page : 1990-1999

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate sodium nitrite-induced hypoxic brain injury in a rat model

1 Faculty of Women for Art, Sciences and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2 National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Amany A. E. Osman
Faculty of Women for Art, Sciences and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.221155

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Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is an inorganic salt used broadly in chemical industry. NaNO2 is highly reactive with hemoglobin causing hypoxia. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into a variety of tissue specific cells and MSC therapy is a potential method for improving brain functions. This work aims to investigate the possible therapeutic role of bone marrow-derived MSCs against NaNO2 induced hypoxic brain injury. Rats were divided into control group (treated for 3 or 6 weeks), hypoxic (HP) group (subcutaneous injection of 35 mg/kg NaNO2 for 3 weeks to induce hypoxic brain injury), HP recovery groups N-2wR and N-3wR (treated with the same dose of NaNO2 for 2 and 3 weeks respectively, followed by 4-week or 3-week self-recovery respectively), and MSCs treated groups N-2wSC and N-3wSC (treated with the same dose of NaNO2 for 2 and 3 weeks respectively, followed by one injection of 2 × 106 MSCs via the tail vein in combination with 4 week self-recovery or intravenous injection of NaNO2 for 1 week in combination with 3 week self-recovery). The levels of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin), energy substances (adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine triphosphate), and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, glutathione reduced form, and oxidized glutathione) in the frontal cortex and midbrain were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. At the same time, hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the pathological change of the injured brain tissue. Compared with HP group, pathological change of brain tissue was milder, the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, oxidized glutathione, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutathione reduced form, and adenosine triphosphate in the frontal cortex and midbrain were significantly decreased, and glutathione reduced form/oxidized glutathione and adenosine monophosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratio were significantly increased in the MSCs treated groups. These findings suggest that bone marrow-derived MSCs exhibit neuroprotective effects against NaNO2-induced hypoxic brain injury through exerting anti-oxidative effects and providing energy to the brain.

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