ORC ID , William K.A. Sikkema2, Jin Kim3, Jeong Ah Kim4, James Walter5, Raymond Dieter5, Hyung-Min Chung6, Andrea Mana7, James M Tour2, Sergio Canavero M.D. 7">
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 1440-1446

Effect of Graphene Nanoribbons (TexasPEG) on locomotor function recovery in a rat model of lumbar spinal cord transection


1 Department of Stem Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University; Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
2 Department of Chemistry, Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, and The NanoCarbon Center, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA
3 Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
4 Biomedical Omics Group, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, Korea
5 Research Service, Hines Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, IL, USA
6 Department of Stem Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea
7 HEAVEN/GEMINI International Collaborative Group, Turin, Italy

Correspondence Address:
C-Yoon Kim
Department of Stem Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University; Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul
Korea
Sergio Canavero
HEAVEN/GEMINI International Collaborative Group, Turin
Italy
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Source of Support: This research was supported by a grant from the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Korean government (NRF- 2015M3A9C7030091 and NRF-2015R1C1A1A02037047), Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.235301

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A sharply transected spinal cord has been shown to be fused under the accelerating influence of membrane fusogens such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) (GEMINI protocol). Previous work provided evidence that this is in fact possible. Other fusogens might improve current results. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of PEGylated graphene nanoribons (PEG-GNR, and called “TexasPEG” when prepared as 1wt% dispersion in PEG600) versus placebo (saline) on locomotor function recovery and cellular level in a rat model of spinal cord transection at lumbar segment 1 (L1) level. In vivo and in vitro experiments (n = 10 per experiment) were designed. In the in vivo experiment, all rats were submitted to full spinal cord transection at L1 level. Five weeks later, behavioral assessment was performed using the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Immunohistochemical staining with neuron marker neurofilament 200 (NF200) antibody and astrocytic scar marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was also performed in the injured spinal cord. In the in vitro experiment, the effects of TexasPEG application for 72 hours on the neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells were observed under the inverted microscope. Results of both in vivo and in vitro experiments suggest that TexasPEG reduces the formation of glial scars, promotes the regeneration of neurites, and thereby contributes to the recovery of locomotor function of a rat model of spinal cord transfection.


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