Figure 2: A scheme of the proposed impairment of astrocyte-neuron-microglia interactions in the neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes, in the consequence of exposure to neuroinflammation and microglia-derived activating signals (e.g., by releasing factors: interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C1q), become reactive and acquire functional deficit resulting in a loss of their neurosupportive properties. This multistep process is common for many neurodegenerative disorders including α synucleinopathies and tauopathies. It involves robust activation of both astrocytes and microglia that essentially contribute to excitotoxicity-dependent neuronal dysfunction leading finally to synapse loss and neurodegeneration. CNS: Central nervous system.