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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: The healthy and pathologic condition of “chronic inflammation” in mitochondria. The inflammation results in impaired Krebs cycle, malfunctioning of mitochondrial complexes I and III, with excessive generation of reactive oxygen (O2), increased activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD), reduced activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPX) and hydrogen peroxide accumulation (H2O2). H2O2 excess can be eliminated by mitochondria targeted catalase (mCAT). Astaxanthin/Fucoxanthin can reduce both O2 and H2O2. The excess of carotenoids and xanthophylls is eliminated by endogenous enzyme beta-carotene-oxygenase 2 (BCO2) localized in the mitochondrial matrix membrane.

Figure 1: The healthy and pathologic condition of “chronic inflammation” in mitochondria.
The inflammation results in impaired Krebs cycle, malfunctioning of mitochondrial complexes I and III, with excessive generation of reactive oxygen (O<sub>2</sub><sup>–</sup>), increased activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD), reduced activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPX) and hydrogen peroxide accumulation (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>). H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> excess can be eliminated by mitochondria targeted catalase (mCAT). Astaxanthin/Fucoxanthin can reduce both O<sub>2</sub><sup>–</sup> and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. The excess of carotenoids and xanthophylls is eliminated by endogenous enzyme beta-carotene-oxygenase 2 (BCO2) localized in the mitochondrial matrix membrane.