Figure 3: A typical patient with glioma involving the AF after iMRI-guided surgical resection. A female patient with left parietal lobe glioma. (A–C) The AF was reconstructed based on T1 anatomical datasets. The first ROI was placed on the left inferior frontal gyrus (A), the second ROI was placed on the lateral part of the corona radiata (B), and the third ROI was placed on the posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus (C). (D) Some of the AF fibers were involved in the tumor, with GAFD = 0 mm. (E) First iMRI revealed residual tumor. (F) After further resection, final iMRI confirmed gross total resection. (G) Preoperative reconstruction of AF fibers. (H) After rigid registration of pre- and intraoperative images, intraoperative diffusion tensor tractography showed part of the AF was diminished, with the mean FA value having decreased from 96.8 to 60.1. AF: Arcuate fasciculus; GAFD: glioma-to-arcuate fasciculus distance; iMRI: intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging; ROI: region of interest.