Figure 4: Melatonin treatment decreases angiogenesis in Aβ1–42-induced AD rats. (A) Capillary density in the different regions. (B–E) Immunofluorescence staining for RECA-1 (green, stained with Alexa 488) in the CX (B) and the hippocampal DG (C), CA1 (D), and CA3 (E) regions (original magnification 200×, scale bar: 200 µm). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM (n = 3 per group). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, vs. sham group; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, vs. AD group; &P < 0.05, vs. AD + melatonin group (two-way repeated measures analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference post hoc tests). A+M: AD + melatonin group; AD: Alzheimer’s disease; Aβ: AD group; Aβ1–42: amyloid-beta 1–42; CA1: cornu ammonis 1; CA3: cornu ammonis 3; CX: cortex; DAPI: 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DG: dentate gyrus; M: melatonin group; RECA-1: rat endothelial cell antibody; Sham: sham group.