Figure 2: Effects of AST on cognitive functions in an aging mouse model, as measured by the Morris water maze. (A) Escape latency in spatial navigation. (B) Number of times crossing the platform in the 120-second probe trial. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. *P < 0.05, vs. control group; #P < 0.05, vs. Aβ + AST + NAM group (independent samples t-test). AST: Astaxanthin; Aβ: amyloid beta; NAM: nicotinamide.