Figure 4: AST restores the expression of hippocampal synaptic proteins and pathway proteins in aging mice. (A) The expression bands of BDNF, SYN, SIRT1, and PGC-1α. (B) The quantitative analysis of protein expression (% of control). Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. *P < 0.05, vs. control group; #P < 0.05, vs. Aβ + AST + NAM group (independent samples t-test). AST: Astaxanthin; Aβ: amyloid beta; BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; NAM: nicotinamide; PGC-1α: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1α; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; SYN: synaptophysin.