Figure 4: Effect of myricetin on hepcidin mRNA levels in rotenone-induced MES23.5 cells detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cells were pretreated with 1 × 10–6 M myricetin for 1 hour, followed by co-treatment with 400 nM rotenone for 24 hours. Compared with the control group, rotenone-treated cells displayed a significant increase in hepcidin mRNA expression. Myricetin significantly inhibited this effect. Hepcidin mRNA expression was normalized to that of GAPDH (optical density ratio). Results are presented as mean ± SD of seven independent experiments. ***P < 0.001, vs. control group; #P < 0.05, vs. rotenone group (one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey’s test). GAPDH: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.