Figure 5: Effects of quercetin on the expression of pro-angiogenic cytokines and neurotrophic factors in diabetic retinopathy detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (A, B) Pro-angiogenic cytokines VEGF (A) and sICAM-1 (B) in retinal tissue. (C, D) Neurotrophic factors BDNF (C) and NGF (D) in retinal tissue. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD (n = 10). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 (one-way analysis of variance followed by the Kruskal-Wallis test for multiple comparisons). BDNF: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; NGF: nerve growth factor; Q: quercetin; sICAM-1: soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1; STZ: streptozocin; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; Znpp: zinc protoporphyrin IX.