Figure 5: Effect of OFS on GFAP-positive astrocytes in injured spinal cords of SCI rats. (A, B) GFAP-positive astrocytes (green, Alexa Fluor 568) in the injured spinal cord on Week 12 (immunofluorescence staining). Astrocyte process orientation was relatively linear in the OFS + SCI group (A) but was irregular in the SCI group (B). The arrows indicate the astrocyte processes. Scale bars: 50 μm. (C) IOD value of GFAP. (D) Astrocyte neurite angle. All values are expressed as the mean ± SD (n = 20). *P < 0.05, ***P < 0.001 (independent samples t-test). GFAP: Glial fiber acid protein; IOD: integrated optical density; OFS: oscillating field stimulation; SCI: spinal cord injury.