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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: Lithium suppresses activation of inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord of rats with SCI. Sham group: No spinal cord injury or treatment; SCI group: spinal cord injury only; LiCl group: lithium treatment after spinal cord injury. (A–C) TNF-α (A), IL-1β (B), and IL-6 (C) expression in the spinal cord were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (D) Representative immunohistochemical staining for IL-1β 7 days after surgery. The number of IL-1β-positive cells was higher in the LiCl group than in the sham group, but lower than in the SCI group. Black arrows indicate IL-1β-positive cells. Scale bars: 50 μm. (E) Quantification of IL-1β-positive cells 7 days after surgery. (F, G) TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression. Data are shown as mean ± SD (n = 6). *P < 0.05, vs. sham group; #P < 0.05, vs. SCI group (one-way analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test). IL-1β: Interleukin-1β; IL-6: interleukin-6; LiCl: lithium chloride; SCI: spinal cord injury; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

<b>Figure 2: Lithium suppresses activation of inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord of rats with SCI.</b>
Sham group: No spinal cord injury or treatment; SCI group: spinal cord injury only; LiCl group: lithium treatment after spinal cord injury. (A–C) TNF-α (A), IL-1β (B), and IL-6 (C) expression in the spinal cord were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (D) Representative immunohistochemical staining for IL-1β 7 days after surgery. The number of IL-1β-positive cells was higher in the LiCl group than in the sham group, but lower than in the SCI group. Black arrows indicate IL-1β-positive cells. Scale bars: 50 μm. (E) Quantification of IL-1β-positive cells 7 days after surgery. (F, G) TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression. Data are shown as mean ± SD (<i>n</i> = 6). *<i>P</i> < 0.05, <i>vs</i>. sham group; #<i>P</i> < 0.05, <i>vs</i>. SCI group (one-way analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test). IL-1β: Interleukin-1β; IL-6: interleukin-6; LiCl: lithium chloride; SCI: spinal cord injury; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha.