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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: Lithium reduces oxidative damage in the spinal cord of rats with SCI. Sham group: No spinal cord injury or treatment; SCI group: spinal cord injury only; LiCl group: lithium treatment after spinal cord injury. (A–F) Effect of lithium on CAT (A), GSH-Px (B), LPO (C), SOD (D), MDA (E), and T-AOC (F) levels in the spinal cord. (G) Representative dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence staining and histogram images of reactive oxygen species in injured spinal cord. The fluorescence intensity was higher in the LiCl group than in the sham group, but lower than in the SCI group. White arrows indicate cells with ROS-positive (red) cell nuclei (blue). Scale bars: 50 μm. Data are shown as mean ± SD (n = 6). *P < 0.05, vs. sham group; #P < 0.05, vs. SCI group (one-way analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test). CAT: Catalase; DAPI: 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase; LiCl: lithium chloride; LPO: lipid peroxide; MDA: malondialdehyde; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SCI: spinal cord injury; SOD: superoxide dismutase; T-AOC: total antioxidant capacity.

<b>Figure 3: Lithium reduces oxidative damage in the spinal cord of rats with SCI.</b>
Sham group: No spinal cord injury or treatment; SCI group: spinal cord injury only; LiCl group: lithium treatment after spinal cord injury. (A–F) Effect of lithium on CAT (A), GSH-Px (B), LPO (C), SOD (D), MDA (E), and T-AOC (F) levels in the spinal cord. (G) Representative dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence staining and histogram images of reactive oxygen species in injured spinal cord. The fluorescence intensity was higher in the LiCl group than in the sham group, but lower than in the SCI group. White arrows indicate cells with ROS-positive (red) cell nuclei (blue). Scale bars: 50 μm. Data are shown as mean ± SD (<i>n</i> = 6). *<i>P</i> < 0.05, <i>vs</i>. sham group; #<i>P</i> < 0.05, <i>vs</i>. SCI group (one-way analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test). CAT: Catalase; DAPI: 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase; LiCl: lithium chloride; LPO: lipid peroxide; MDA: malondialdehyde; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SCI: spinal cord injury; SOD: superoxide dismutase; T-AOC: total antioxidant capacity.